Physics and Nanotechnology

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Orders: (631) 299-0024, Office: (631) 231-7269, Fax: (631) 299-0166, E-mail: billing.central@novapublishers.com

Models of Plasma Kinetics and Problems with Their Interpretation in the Current Paradigm

**Authors: **Vladimir V. Lyahov and Vladimir M. Neshchadim (Leading Research Workers of Institute of Ionosphere, SLLP NTSKIT, Almaty, Kazakhstan)

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2018 - February

**Book Description: **

Proposed by A.A. Vlasov in 1938, the kinetic equation with a self-consistent electromagnetic field led to a fundamentally new perspective in plasma physics. This equation represents the most profound approach to the description of plasma because it operates directly with plasma particles using the distribution function. Plasma is found everywhere in space; that is why this equation has an extensive application. A large number of works where the study of plasma properties based on the solution of the Vlasov equation have appeared.

However, the results based on the solution of the Vlasov equation should be assumed with caution. As noted in the manuscript, the Vlasov equation has a set of formal solutions. The researcher must have the ability to select the correct solutions, correct in the sense of their adequacy to the processes under investigation.

Some aspects of the polarization of a magnetoactive plasma are investigated. It is shown that neglecting the electric field in problems of such sharply inhomogeneous structures as a boundary or current layers leads to an inadequate model. Thus, the successive solution of the kinetic equation taking into account the electric polarization field indicates that the equations describing the equilibrium of these sharply inhomogeneous structures become nonlinear and exhibit the property of structural instability.

Natural science over time included the expansion of the field of numbers from natural to real. Now, physics is in the stage of semi-recognition of complex numbers. On the one hand, when solving the differential equation, the physicist finds the value of the roots of the characteristic equation in a complex field. However, at the final stage, all imaginary parts are discarded, and only real values of physical quantities are passed in response. In this case, the complex field has a fundamental feature that distinguishes it: it is algebraically closed. The restriction of physical quantities only to the field of real numbers seems logically unsatisfactory since often mathematical operations derive them from the field of the original definition. In this manuscript, some problems of the complexification of physics are investigated.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-853-6

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-854-3

**Price: **$195.00

**Price: **$195.00

Horizons in World Physics. Volume 295

**Editor: **Albert Reimer

**Series: ** Horizons in World Physics

**Publication Date: **2018 - February

**Book Description: **

Horizons in World Physics. Volume 295 provides a detailed description of major fundamental problems of physics associated with inconsistencies of major postulates and concepts used in classical, relativistic, quantum and particle physics. The authors examine conceptual difficulties of classical dynamics, afterwards introducing notions such as energy, momentum and collision. Difficulties related to the introduction of electrodynamics based on hydrodynamic principles are described. Next, a study is presented wherein an attempt was made to explain the fundamental light properties (diffraction, photoelectric effect, pressure, refraction, dispersion and reflection). The photon flow was considered as a directed flow of so-called elementary particles (EP) passing strongly determined channels between the atomic nuclei with different concentrations of FOP. A preceding study gives an explanation for the ordinary and dark energy density of the cosmos. The authors present a connection between quantum entanglement and the absence of almost 95.5% of the energy supposed to be contained in the cosmos, taking the view that our current mathematical knowledge and general theories are in position to explain ordinary energy, dark matter and pure dark energy both qualitatively and quantitatively. A subsequent chapter investigates nonlinear propagation of ultrashort intense laser pulses through underdense plasma, presenting a paraxial theory of self-focusing of intense laser pulses due to expulsion of plasma electrons produced by the extreme ponderomotive force of a focused laser pulse. The authors address the way nanoporous materials applications in biology and medicine have been widely researched in recent years, presenting the numerical model and experimental data for imbibition. This model simulates the motion of the front of the liquid, two-dimensionally imbibing the inhomogeneous nanoporous medium with altering porosity and pore size. This collection also contains a study focusing on focuses on investigating the possible use of microwave discharges to initiate ignition and detonation of air–fuel mixtures. The results can be applied to the development of volumetric ignition systems in internal combustion engines, gas turbine engines, and detonation engines. A family of long known solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations is revisited from a rigorous mathematical point of view by Employing the formalism of Cartan exterior differential forms. It is shown that the curvature of the spacetime supporting these electromagnetic waves vanishes in the absence of electromagnetic fields, emphasizing that the gravitational field in these solutions arises exclusively from electromagnetic effects. In closing, the nucleon-nucleon interactions at low energies are described by NN-potentials that arise within the framework of the classical mesonic theory as a consequence of the interchange of mesons. The authors conclude that the NN-potentials only correspond to some residual interactions.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53613-218-2

**ISBN: **978-1-53613-219-9

**Price: **$250.00

**Price: **$250.00

Geomagnetosphere and Coupling Phenomena, Volume II: Coupling of the Geomagnetosphere/Ionosphere/Atmosphere System with Processes Underground, in Low Atmosphere, on the Sun, and in Space

**Author: **Lev I. Dorman (Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel)

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2018 - 1st Quarter

**Book Description: **

The present review book of Lev I. Dorman, The Geomagnetosphere and Coupling Phenomena, Volume II: Coupling of the Geomagnetosphere/Ionosphere/Atmosphere System with Processes Underground, in Low Atmosphere, on the Sun, and in Space reflects the development of the geomagnetosphere’s research and applications for the last few decades. The importance and actuality of the geomagnetosphere’s research are based on the following three factors:

1. The geomagnetosphere is the nearest giant natural laboratory, where it is possible via many satellites and ground measurements to investigate in detail many different plasmas and energetic processes in space, caused by the interaction of high kinetic energy, solar wind plasmas and their perturbations (Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections - ICMEs, Interplanetary Shock Waves – ISWs, Interplanetary Interaction Regions – IIR), including those frozen within the Interplanetary Magnetic Fields (IMF) with the rotated main geomagnetic field. This interaction leads to a dynamic transformation of magnetic fields in the geomagnetosphere, generation and trapping of high energy particles (which can be called as Magnetospheric Cosmic Rays – MCR), generation of numerous instabilities and electromagnetic radiations. These processes are, in principle, similar to processes in magnetospheres of other planets and their moons, in the atmosphere of the sun and other stars, in interplanetary and in interstellar space, and in many different astrophysical objects. This research is an important basis for fundamental space and astrophysical science.

2. In modern times, technology, economics, navigation, TV, internet, radio connections, military aspects, and the life of people on our planet are strongly connected with the work of many satellites moving inside the geomagnetosphere. Different processes and MCR in the geomagnetosphere influence the satellites’ work and often lead to satellite malfunctions up to fully destroying them; the satellites essentially “die”. The described research can be considered as a basis for developing methods of forecasting dangerous situations for satellites in different orbits as well as to decrease the risk of satellite malfunctions and loss. For this purpose, this research has important practical applications.

3. The interaction of ICME, ISW, and IIR with the geomagnetosphere leads to the generation of big magnetic storms accompanied with the Forbush decrease and precursory effects in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) intensity. These magnetic storms are dangerous not only to satellites, but also to the Earth’s surface for technology, radio connections, car accidents, and human health (e.g., increasing the frequency of infarct myocardial and brain strokes). Investigations of magnetic storm causes can help to develop methods of their forecasting and decreasing the level of magnetic storms hazards. Therefore, the other practical application of this research is connected with the problem of space weather and space climate influence on technology, radio connections, navigation, transportation, and human health on Earth independent of altitude and geomagnetic latitude.

We hope that this review book will be interesting and useful for researches, engineers, students, and all people interested in the developing of modern technologies in space and concerning issues with the geomagnetosphere, ionosphere, upper and low Atmosphere, cosmic rays, space weather and space climate influence on Earth.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-270-1

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-278-7

**Price: **$230.00

**Price: **$230.00

Perturbation Theory: Advances in Research and Applications

**Editor: **Zossima Pirogov

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2018 - 1st Quarter

**Book Description: **

Perturbation Theory: Advances in Research and Applications begins with a deliberation on the development of a formalism of the Exchange perturbation theory (EPT) that accounts for the general identity principle of electrons that belong to different atomic centres. The possible applications of the theory concerning scattering and collision problems are discussed, and the authors apply the TDEPT to the description of the positron scattering on a Lithium atom as an example. Next, spin fluctuations in metallic multiband systems are discussed, including how to calculate the effect of itinerant spin excitations on the electronic properties and formulate a theory of spin fluctuation-induced superconductivity. The function of spin-orbit coupling is emphasized. Following this, the authors review how, governed by chiral symmetry, the long- and intermediate-range parts of the $NN$ potential unfold order by order, proceeding up to sixth order where convergence is achieved. Perturbative and nonperturbative approaches to nuclear amplitude are discussed, including the implications for renormalization. Continuing, this book presents proof of the good convergence properties of the new expansions on mathematical models that simulate the physical polarization function for light quarks and its derivative (the Adler function), in various prescriptions of renormalization-group summation. An overview of the calculation of one-loop corrections to the baryon axial vector current in the large-Nc heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is offered, where Nc is the number of color charges. The matrix elements of the space components of the renormalization of the baryon axial vector current between SU(6) symmetric states yield the values of the axial vector couplings.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-989-2

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-990-8

**Price: **$195.00

**Price: **$195.00

Advances in Nanotechnology. Volume 21

**Editors: **Zacharie Bartul and Jérôme Trenor

**Series: ** Advances in Nanotechnology

**Publication Date: **2018 - 1st Quarter

**Book Description: **

In this compilation, the authors discuss a synergistic enhancement of electron and thermal conductivities of epoxy-based composites (CMs) with different hybrid fillers. Their investigation shows an increase of the thermal conductivity as compared to CMs with a single carbon filler. This increase is more pronounced for GNPs/BN fillers. However, the role of an interface thermal resistance is still dominant in the determination of the thermal conductivity of investigated epoxy composites. A subsequent chapter aims to present an overview of noteworthy functionalised materials that have been produced in recent years, in order to act as a guide for the future design of more efficient adsorbent materials. The authors also provide a review which could pave the way for the potential use of nanotechnology in the treatment of skin diseases. The potential implication of the nanotechnology-based cosmeceuticals could be significant and is warranted to be evaluated in long-term in vivo and clinical studies. Next, a transparent and flexible crystalline polymer nanohybrid was fabricated, containing well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles with organic chain-modified surfaces. The partially fluorinated copolymer matrix used is composed of switchboard-type lamellae. These become transparent owing to the creation of high-density amorphous regions on drawing the corresponding film at just below the polymer melting point. Lastly, the book investigates double-diffusive convection in unsteady nanofluid flow over a moving surface in a porous medium in the presence of a chemical reaction and subject to thermal radiation. This study includes the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53613-202-1

**ISBN: **978-1-53613-203-8

**Price: **$250.00

**Price: **$250.00

Geomagnetosphere and Coupling Phenomena, Volume I: Solar Wind/IMF Coupling with Geomagnetosphere/Ionosphere

**Author: **Lev I. Dorman( Founder/Head, Israel Cosmic Ray & Space Weather Center & Israeli-Italian Emilio Segre' Observatory on Mt. Hermon, Tel Aviv University, Golan Research Institute & Israel Space Agency; Founder/Chief Scientist, Cosmic Ray Dept, IZMIRAN, Russia )

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

The present review book by Prof., Dr. Lev I. Dorman, Plasmas and Energetic Processes in Geomagnetosphere reflects the development of the geomagnetosphere’s research and applications for the last few decades. The importance and actuality of geomagnetosphere research are based on the following three factors:

1. The geomagnetosphere is the nearest giant natural laboratory, where it is possible via satellites and ground measurements to investigate in detail many different plasmas and energetic processes in space, which are caused by an interaction of high kinetic energy solar wind plasmas and its perturbations (Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections - ICMEs, Interplanetary Shock Waves – ISWs, Interplanetary Interaction Regions – IIR), including those frozen in the Interplanetary Magnetic Fields (IMF) with the rotated main geomagnetic field. This interaction leads to the dynamic transformation of magnetic fields in the geomagnetosphere, generation and trapping of high energy particles (which are known as Magnetospheric Cosmic Rays – MCR), and the generation of many types of instabilities and electromagnetic radiations. These processes are in principle similar to processes in magnetospheres of other planets and their moons, in the atmosphere of the sun and other stars, in interplanetary and in interstellar space, and in many different astrophysical objects. This research is an important basis for fundamental space and astrophysical science.

2. Today, technology, economics, navigation, TV, Internet, radio connections, military aspects, and the life of people on our planet are strongly connected to the work of many satellites moving inside the geomagnetosphere. Different processes and MCR in the geomagnetosphere influence the satellites’ work and often lead to satellite malfunctions up to fully destroying their electronics; satellites essentially “die” in these cases. The described research can be considered as a basis for developing methods of forecasting dangerous situations for satellites in different orbits and to decrease the risk of satellite malfunctions and loss.

3. The interaction of ICME, ISW, and IIR with the geomagnetosphere leads to the generation of big magnetic storms accompanied with a Forbush decrease and precursory effects in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) intensity. These magnetic storms are dangerous not only to satellites, but also to the Earth’s surface in terms of technology, radio connections, car accidents, and human health (e.g., increasing the frequency of infarct myocardial and brain strokes). Investigations of causes of magnetic storms can help to develop methods of forecasting and decreasing the level of magnetic storm hazards. Therefore, the other practical application of this research is connected with the problem of space weather and space climate influence on the technology, radio connections, navigation, transportation, and people’s health on the Earth, which is independent of altitude and geomagnetic latitude.

Volume I of the book, Geomagnetosphere and Coupling Phenomena, includes the following chapters:

Chapter 1. Coupling and Energy Transfer: Time Variations and Main Problems

Chapter 2. Coupling of Solar Wind/IMF with Geomagnetosphere/Ionosphere

Chapter 3. Efficiency of Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling for SW Pressure Variations

Chapter 4. Coupling of Space Factors with High Latitude Magnetospheric Activity

Chapter 5. Coupling of Interplanetary ShW, CME and CIR with Magnetospheric Activity

Chapter 6. Geomagnetosphere-Ionosphere System Coupling with Processes in Space and in the Atmosphere

The author hopes that this book will be interesting and useful for researches, engineers, students, and all people interested in developing modern technologies in space and in problems concerning the geomagnetosphere, ionosphere, upper and lower atmosphere, cosmic rays, space weather and space climate influence on the Earth.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53610-564-3

**ISBN: **978-1-53610-572-8

**Price: **$270.00

**Price: **$270.00

Completion and Unification of Quantum Mechanics with Einstein's GR Ideas, Part II: Unification with GR

**Author: **Zoran Majkic (Tallahassee, FL, USA)

**Series: ** Classical and Quantum Mechanics

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

The proposed completion of QM theory, with the new non-probabilistic equations and a new mathematical basis for the deterministic quantum mechanics is presented here as a conservative extension of the Standard QM by 3-dimensional (of rest mass energy density) elementary particles. This theory can reshape our view of the quantum world, allowing us to include also classical gravity and to answer some of the deep unresolved questions at the heart of quantum mechanics. This new theory of particles is a constructive approach, alternative to the string theory. Thus, it avoids the infinitary problems of the inverse square for gravitational and electric forces, and may be used as a formal basis for Einstein’s unification theory. This second volume is the continuation of Part I and is dedicated to its unification with General Relativity (GR) and with higher dimensions used for the particle’s properties, such as electrical charge, spin, colors, etc.

In Chapter One, after a brief presentation of the main results obtained in Part I, the concepts of GR theory, tensors, and differential pseudo-Rimannian 4-dimensional time-space manifolds are gradually introduced sufficiently for a self-contained presentation and derivation of these new covariant equations. Then, the unification of this newly completed deterministic QM with the GR theory is provided . Chapter Two introduces and examines the extremely small, compacted higher dimensions in order to integrate the charge and spin properties of the elementary particles in a complete quantum physics theory for elementary particles. Chapter Three considers the higher dimensional wave packets of the particles and their reduction to the 4-dimensional time-space, and particles’ vector kets in the higher-dimensional manifold framework. These are composed of Minkowski time-space and new small, compacted dimensions: a spacelike extra dimension for the quantized spin vectors of the particles and time-like extra dimensions for the quantized charges. After that important properties of this QM theory are considered, the new quantum superposition for the states of a number of individual particles and ERP paradox (entanglement) are discussed.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53611-947-3

**ISBN: **978-1-53611-967-1

**Price: **$230.00

**Price: **$230.00

The Theory of Density: From the Effect of Pressure on Time Dilation to the Unified Mass-Charge Equation

**Author: **Mohammad Javanshiry (Independent Researcher, Tehran, Iran)

Editors: Cynthia Kolb Whitney (The Journal Galilean Electrodynamics, Arlington, MA, USA)

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

The main parts of this book consist of three long articles that have previously been published by the Galilean Electrodynamics journal during three succeeding years as special summer issues. The subject is a new theory of ether that has been developed. This version of ether is compatible with special relativity theory (SRT), and thus it cannot be considered as an absolute frame of reference. One of the virtues of this book is that many of the novel predictions can be tested in high-tech laboratories; moreover, the book includes some new and extraordinary physical concepts that make the proposed claims rational and plausible. The words on the front page, “From the effect of pressure on time dilation to the unified mass-charge equation,” are not intended as a gossipy slogan, the likes of which sometimes appear in pseudoscientific media or science-fiction books; it is a true motto with a deep and physical basis. It is up to the reader, however, to judge whether or not the book really does what it sets out to do.

Unfortunately, most of the recent theories in physics, with no clear deployment against the main tenets of relativity or quantum mechanics, are inflated in a way to be comprehensively explanatory, whereas there are few or no experimental evidences that support these theories as good descriptions of nature. In the author’s view, such theories baffle the minds of unsophisticated readers by deceptively pretending that a high level of knowledge is needed for the theories to be correctly understood and by confining seekers of knowledge to cages of complicated math forms. Such theories also deteriorate traditional science methodology over the course of time. Nonetheless, density theory (DT) tries to abide by the methodology of the renowned physics giants by founding profound postulates.

The first chapter introduces a substantial number of Einstein’s general relativity predictions, which are recalculated according to density theory (DT) to validate the theory for the reader. The second chapter uses interesting concepts, some of which present empirically bizarre results and are undisclosed as of yet; e.g., it is shown that static pressure can dilate time and increase mass; the light beam is affected in specific magnetic and electrical fields, and thus we can deduce that photons are not always electrically neutral; ether negative mass causes universal expansion, and; water can behave as a biological ether especially for deep sea creatures, as its hydrostatic pressure can affect biological longevity. In chapter three, the author tries to unify mass and electrical charge – one of the oldest and most disputatious physical problems – in the single equation of “mass + rotation = charge” for the very first time in the history of science. Additionally, an alternative to the dynamo theory is brought forth.

After explaining each novel concept, the author uses some numerical examples with no complicated mathematical methods beyond common calculus. These concepts and examples make the book read as an argumentative dissident textbook that is suitable for bachelor students in science and engineering who want to nourish their desires to research beyond the realm of orthodoxy in frontier physics.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-105-6

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-187-2

**Price: **$160.00

**Price: **$160.00

Computational Optics: Beam Propagation Methods

**Author: **Miroslav Kolesik (College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA)

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

Computational Optics: Beam Propagation Methods gives a comprehensive discussion of the theory, numerical methods, and best practices in the field of computer-aided modeling of optical-beam propagation. Derived from a course taught by the author, the textbook is designed to support both independent self-paced study and a traditional semester-long lecture. The book combines two complementary tracks. The theory part provides a detailed, incremental exposition of the physics of optical beam propagation, and a description of the relevant numerical techniques. The practice-track gives an opportunity to put the theory into use by guiding the reader through increasingly sophisticated examples, which cover program design and simulation execution as well as a critical assessment of the results. Written for a readership with modest experience in numerical simulations and programming, this textbook integrates both tracks into a story flowing in easy to digest increments, covering topics from the basics to the state of the art in the field.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-334-0

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-339-5

**Price: **$230.00

**Price: **$230.00

Mathematical and Physical Aspects of Experimental Investigations on Electron and Relaxation Time Spectra in Bulk and Nano-Structured Semiconductors and Insulators

**Author: **Valeri Ligatchev (Department of Physics and Technology of Electrotechnical Materials and Component, Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Moscow, Russia)

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

This book summarizes important outcomes of a quarter century of developments in advanced mathematical approaches and their implementations for deconvolution. The analysis of electron and relaxation time spectra obtained from the results of appropriate physical experiments fulfilled on real samples of bulk amorphous/crystalline semiconductors and insulators as well as on nano-structured materials and devices are also discussed. The second chapter of this book depicts key features of many well-known traditional and some modern techniques for experimental investigations of electron density and time relaxation spectra in such semiconductors and insulators. as Additionally, there is an emphasis on archetypal problems related to the analysis and interpretation of the results of those experimental techniques. Some generic (though crucially important in the context of this book) physical and mathematical aspects of the polarization and relaxation processes in solids, well-known one-dimensional direct and inverse integral transforms, linear integral equations of the first and second kinds, “ill-posed” mathematical problems and specific mathematical approaches to solution(s) of those are discussed in the third, fourth and fifth chapters, respectively. A majority of the aforementioned mathematical approaches are essentially based on the so-called “regularization” concept, pioneered by famous Russian mathematicians (A. N. Tikhonov, M. M. Lavrentiev, V. K. Ivanov, V. Ya. Arsenin and their co-workers) in the second half of the twentieth century. Mathematical aspects of the regularization concept are discussed (to some extent) in the fifth chapter of the book in comparison to the similar aspects of the traditional “modelling” approach with multiple references on appropriate “original” articles and books. Thanks to distinctive features of the regularization concept, it endures a protracted history (which nowadays well exceeds 5 decades), becomes the dominant strategy for the solution of various “inverse problems”, and is widely used in many types of modern applications and computational packages. In particular, the regularization algorithms are incorporated into Mathematica, Matlab, Python and Octave packages.

This generic “regularization” concept had been successfully implemented by the author of this book during the development and practical realization (programming) of several essentially different regularization algorithms (described in detail in the sixth chapter of the book) for unambiguous investigations and the analysis of results of appropriated physical experiments, fulfilled over a period from 1984 to 2009, both in Russia and in Singapore. Furthermore, actual results of such experimental investigations are discussed in the seventh chapter following closely appropriate original publications, and in comparison with their counterparts obtained by traditional (e.g., “modelling”) approaches. As it is also demonstrated in the seventh chapter with the relevant examples and detailed discussion(s), the implementation of the aforementioned “regularization” algorithms allows one to identify (and interpret thereafter) new important features of the intra-gap and near-band-gap electronic spectra of the amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors and insulators. The relaxation time spectra of those materials, which are usually unattainable via the implementation of the “modelling” approach is also analyzed.

It is important that the regularization concept (mathematically related to its alternative ones, e.g., the direct and inverse Radon integral transforms) has many other, very important implementations, e.g., in medical computerized tomography, security-related applications, archeology, geophysics, etc. Similar to the abovementioned spectroscopic techniques, the X-ray-based computerized tomography eventually yields vital information on features of electron density distribution in a studied object, though the desired function in the latter case rather depends on spatial variables than on energetic ones. The mathematical essence of the Radon-transform-based computerized tomography is also summarized very briefly in one of the sections of this book. A comprehensive reference list of this book comprises many other key references (for those who are interested in the aforementioned topics discussed herein).

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-566-5

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-586-3

**Price: **$230.00

**Price: **$230.00

A Classical Description of Variational Quantum Mechanics and Related Models

**Author: **Fabio Silva Botelho, Ph.D. (Adjunct Professor, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Brazil)

**Series: ** Classical and Quantum Mechanics

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

In this text, the author establishes a connection between classical and quantum mechanics through the normal field definition and related wave function concept.

Indeed, the author proposes a new energy which includes both classical and quantum mechanics in a unified framework. Concerning such energy, they show that if ℏ≪m, where m denotes the total system mass, then the energy is experienced in a classical mechanics context, whereas if the approximation r(x,t)≈x is assumed, where r(x,t) denotes point-wise the particle classical field of position, and for appropriate m values the standard Schrödinger energies are re-obtained.

Among the examples of applications concerning the proposal, the author highlights the hydrogen atom as one example, where both the proton and electron are allowed to move. The consistent result of a proton mass concentration at r = 0 is obtained.

The author also develops a procedure to obtain eigenvalues of a positive definite symmetric matrix.

The novelty here, concerning previous results in the book entitled Functional Analysis and Applied Optimization in Banach Spaces, are the rigorous proofs presented.

Indeed, the results seem to be applicable to more general matrices. However, the author postpones the proof of such general results for future research.

In the last chapter, a complete and rigorous existence result for the Ginzburg-Landau system of superconductivity is presented. A duality principle and related optimality conditions are also developed. In the final section, the author presents research concerning numerical results for three-dimensional models in superconductivity.

**Binding: **Softcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53613-059-1

**ISBN: **978-1-53613-060-7

**Price: **$82.00

**Price: **$82.00

Field Propulsion Physics and Intergalactic Exploration

**Authors: **Yoshinari Minami (Advanced Science-Technology Research Organization (Formerly NEC Space Development Division) and Herman David Froning (Flight Unlimited, Retired)

**Series: ** Space Science, Exploration and Policies

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

Due to the lack of space propulsion technology and space navigation technology that can accelerate at high speeds in a short time, it is well-known that mankind does not currently have technology to realize a journey to other star systems.This book explains galaxy exploration by combining field propulsion based on the physical structure of space-time and a new navigation theory.

A field propulsion system is propelled without mass expulsion. The propulsive force as a pressure thrust arises from the interaction of space-time around the spaceship itself; this causes the spaceship to propel against the space-time structure. Firstly, from the physical and engineering point of view, the propulsion principle and propulsion theory of field propulsion are explained. As a typical example of field propulsion, the space drive propulsion system includes its theory, the registered patent, and the latest development from the viewpoint of cosmology and astrophysics.

Secondly, for galaxy exploration, navigation technology such as a wormhole that bypasses the wall of light speed, not propulsion technology, is indispensable. A method for overcoming the light barrier (the seeming wall-of-light in 4-D space-time), or a hyperspace navigation theory to jump the light-barrier, is explained. Combining the space propulsion system and the navigation system makes it possible to perform a realistic galaxy exploration.

The reader will not only get a good introduction to the science and technology of field power and propulsion physics, but also to the possibility of interstellar navigation.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-554-2

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-581-8

**Price: **$195.00

**Price: **$195.00

Analytic and Diagram Methods in Nuclear Reaction Theory

**Authors: **Leonid Blokhintsev, Yuri Orlov, and Dmitri Savin (Principal Researcher, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia)

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

Using the analyticity property of the amplitudes of physical processes allows one to obtain important relations connecting various physical quantities. These relations can be established without specifying the concrete form of the interaction between particles, which is often poorly known. The analytic methods make use of the unitarity property of the S-matrix and the formalism of the Feynman diagrams. The present book is devoted to a systematic description of the analytic and diagram methods in the theory of nuclear reactions at low and intermediate energies. First, a general overview of the unitarity and analyticity properties of the S- and T-matrices is presented. Then the general theory of non-relativistic Feynman diagrams, their specific features and the analytic properties of their amplitudes is described. Three- and four-prong vertex functions of the non-relativistic Feynman diagrams are among the topics that are addressed and discussed, including the important relation between vertex functions and the asymptotic form of the nuclear bound-state wave functions. Specific approaches to describing nuclear reactions, which use analytic and diagram methods are outlined. These methods include the dispersion K-matrix approach, the dispersion relations, and the Trojan horse method. A part of the book deals with the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs). ANCs are fundamental nuclear characteristics that are important in nuclear reaction and nuclear structure physics as well as in nuclear astrophysics. They are used actively in the analysis of nuclear reactions, in particular in considering the creation of elements in the Universe. Various methods of determining ANCs are overviewed. One chapter of the book is devoted to the methods of obtaining information on the features of bound nuclear states by an analytic continuation of the scattering data. The analytic continuation of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Faddeev integral equations onto unphysical energy sheets, which can be used for finding the position and width of resonances and the virtual (antibound) states is described. A generalization of wave function normalization to the Gamow states is outlined.

**Binding: **Softcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-809-3

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-810-9

**Price: **$82.00

**Price: **$82.00

Complex Networks: Advances in Research and Applications

**Editor: **Sébastien Faubert

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

Chapter One focuses on investigational data on the fluorescence of DNA complexes inside neutrophils in flow cytometry with nanometer spatial resolution. Fluorescence visualizes oxidative activity of all coding and non-coding DNA parts in the full set of chromosomes. Chapter Two studies real-world networks based on a centrality metric called the Leverage Centrality metric which has been recommended as a means of identifying neighborhood hubs. The LevC of a node is a comparative measure of the connectivity of a node vis-a-vis its neighbors. In Chapter Three, the author goes on to examine neighborhood overlap, bipartivity index, and algebraic connectivity as edge centrality metrics to measure the consistency of links for mobile sensor networks. For several instances of node density and mobility, the author observes the stability of the network-wide data gathering trees determined using the proposed three edge centrality metrics to be significantly larger than the stability of the LET-based data gathering trees. Finally, Chapter Four proposes a fusion condition with the goal of preventing wrong fusions and alleviating the effect of the resolution limit. The suggested condition can also be used in other algorithms that make community fusions.

**Binding: **Softcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-833-8

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-834-5

**Price: **$82.00

**Price: **$82.00

Advances in Rheology Research

**Editor: **María Dolores Torres Pérez (University of Cambridge, Cambrige, UK)

**Series: ** Physics Research and Technology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

Advances in Rheology Research has been divided into fourteen chapters. The renowned authors of this volume discuss current advances in rheology research for different application fields, covering theoretical and experimental scientific contributions. The fourteen chapters include discussions on a wide range of outstanding rheological issues such as rheology and 3D printing; rheological characterization of injection grouts using rotational rheometry; analysis of rheological properties of 100% liquid CO2 based gel fracturing fluid; rheology applied to food product design; miscibility and viscoelastic properties of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) blends; rheology of honey; unusual nonlinear rheological behavior of branched polymers: multiple overshoots in stress growth, experiments and theory; viscosity and viscoelasticity of baby foods; rheology as an instrument for food development; using the Laplace transform in rheology kinetic modeling; design of vibration absorbers using the rheological properties of viscoelastic materials; a viscoelastic fluid due to a non-linear accelerating elastic sheet; an MHD boundary layer viscoelastic fluid flow over a stretching sheet in a porous medium; and thermal radiation effect on fully developed laminar mixed convection flow in a vertical porous stratum by using a differential transform method. All of the above chapters are intended to contribute the improvement understanding of the rheological characterization and performance in numerous application fields from the food to the non-food industries.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-875-8

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-876-5

**Price: **$230.00

**Price: **$230.00

Advances in Nanotechnology. Volume 20

**Editors: **Zacharie Bartul and Jérôme Trenor

**Series: ** Advances in Nanotechnology

**Publication Date: **2017 - 4th Quarter

**Book Description: **

In this compilation, the authors discuss nanopowders, or powders with a particle size of less than 100 nanometers. Several nanopowder types have effectively been synthesized with potential applications as follows: Fe3O4 and BaFe6O19 (as magnetic materials, microwave absorbent, magnetic fluid and gel), SiO2 (as fillers to enhance mechanical strength), and CaCO3 (as coating for corrosive protection, food additives, cosmetics and drugs). This method allows for the production of high purity nanopowders with a moderately narrow crystal size distribution and unique morphology. Next, the innovative approaches to address the lightning strikes and EMI shielding effects on composite aircraft are examined, noting that composite aircraft protection against lightning is more complex due to the anisotropic nature of composite structure and high resistance of carbon in epoxy resins. The authors go on to present results of studies of composite electrochemical coatings modified by nano- and microparticles of various natures are presented, considering the operational properties and structural features of main types of composite coatings. Later, recent advances in synthesising highly ordered Titana nanotubes are explored, with regard to selection of suitable titanium based substrate and electrolyte apart from process parameters. These parameters include temperature, pH, voltage and applications in the areas of global warming , solar energy, photocatalytic applications, biomedical starting from implants to drug-eluding stents, sensors, and hydrogen storage. A chapter is presented on practical ways for fabricating cost-effective equipment for deposition of nanofilms, covering the most versatile techniques of sol-gel deposition and sputter-coating. The authors maintain that by applying individual ingenuity to the described frugal techniques, the reader should be able to form nanofilms of various materials with properties tailored to suit the intended application. Afterwards, the authors describe the soft, hard templated, and hierarchically ordered strategies concerning nanotechnology applied to fabricate porous carbon materials. Additionally, relevant advantages and disadvantages aim to provide the vital information about the growing field for future energy to minimize the potential environmental risks. Moving on, the authors introduce new research and related literature concerning the synthesis of cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) nanoneedle arrays for efficient hydrogen evolution electrolysis. Future aspects for improving the performance of transition metal dichalcogenide-based electrocatalytic electrodes are also examined. Lastly, a study on formation of nanoporous silicon and germanium layers with silver nanoparticles by low-energy high-dose ion implantation is presented. The authors suggest ion implantation for the formation of naoporous semiconductor thin layers, which could be easily combined with the crystalline matrix for various applications.

**Binding: **Hardcover

**Binding: **e-Book

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-902-1

**ISBN: **978-1-53612-903-8

**Price: **$250.00

**Price: **$250.00