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The Foundations of Multimoment Hydrodynamics. Part 1: Ideas, Methods and Equations

Author: Igor V. Lebed
Zhukovsky Central Institute of Aerohydrodynamics, Senior Researcher, Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, Russian Federation

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
The Boltzmann hypothesis of molecular chaos (“Stosszahlansatz”) closes the classic kinetic equation. Equations of classic hydrodynamics that directly follow from the Boltzmann equation inevitably contain the error involved in the derivation of classic kinetic equation. The physical meaning of the error introduced by the Boltzmann hypothesis in the equations of hydrodynamics is as follows. Only the Boltzmann hypothesis makes it possible to build hydrodynamics for only three lower principal hydrodynamic values, say, density, velocity, and temperature. The Boltzmann hypothesis also excludes objectively existing higher principal hydrodynamic values from participation in the formation of hydrodynamics equations. Thus, the possibility of the improvement of classic hydrodynamics equations should be sought toward an increase in the number of principal hydrodynamic values.
The idea of separating gas particles into pairs allows using the higher principal hydrodynamic values when constructing equations of hydrodynamics. Two particles are called a pair if they either move towards the collision with each other or fly apart after the collision with each other. Created formalism allows hydrodynamics equations to be built with an arbitrary number of principal hydrodynamic values specified beforehand.
As expected, classic hydrodynamics experience difficulties when interpreting states of medium, which are far removed from the state of statistical equilibrium. A detailed evaluation of the results of direct numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations against experimental data in an unstable regime of flow around a sphere reveals a number of obvious discrepancies. Most importantly, observed transition from a stable regime of flow to turbulence is invariably accompanied by the appearance of regular vortex shedding. There are no such experiments in which chaotic regime replaces regular stable flow bypassing vortex shedding modes. On the contrary, calculated transition from a regular stable mode to the chaotic deterministic one occurs directly, bypassing the vortex shedding. Thus, the solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations lead the development of instability along the direction of incompatibility with the experiment. The movement in the wrong direction doesn’t allow these solutions to interpret the turbulence correctly. Equations of multimoment hydrodynamics are created to solve these problems.
The solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations suggest a single scenario for the development of instability; this is the Landau-Hopf scenario. The Landau-Hopf scenario is simple and uncomplicated. It interprets the process of development of instability as a sequence of transitions from one stable solution to another. On the contrary, the appearance of a vortex street is a complex multistage physical phenomenon. An increase in the number of principal hydrodynamic values in the equations of multimoment hydrodynamics essentially enriches the scenario of development of instability by new actions. These actions are not available for solutions to the equations of three-moment classic hydrodynamics. It follows that the Landau-Hopf scenario does not have the slightest prospect of reproducing the phenomenon of vortex shedding.
An analysis of the experimental data shows that the transition to turbulence occurs as a result of chaotic distortion of the regular vortex shedding in any shear flow (wakes and jets, pipes and channels, shear layers, etc.). It is likely that this is the only mechanism for the development of turbulence. In this case, the turbulence of the shear flow is nothing else but a regular regime of vortex shedding distorted by excessively overgrown stochastic fluctuations.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-364-6
ISBN: 978-1-53613-365-3

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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A Code for Geoscientific Fieldwork in Africa: Guidelines on Health and Safety Issues in Mapping, Mineral Exploration, Geoecological Research, and Geotourism

Author: Theophilus Clavell Davies
Professor of Medical Geology and Environmental Geochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Series: African Political, Economic, and Security Issues

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
A Code for Geoscientific Fieldwork in Africa is the first book to focus exclusively on the important subject of geoscience and geoecology research and study, exploring the methodological considerations that engender health and safety aspects, offering strategies to mitigate these issues.

This book comprises a set of guidelines to address the importance of geoscience and geoecology field trip safety, the considerations that should be taken in order to keep students, researchers and expeditionists safe in the African jungle, and how planning for safe field trips in the future should be undertaken. It also discusses how fieldwork affects the different categories of participants personally and what happens to field relationships. It gives an insightful analysis on participants with special needs and disabilities, and proven techniques for accommodating them in fieldwork.

The unique challenges and obstacles faced in this kind of scientific endeavor in African settings are effectively captured in the book, including mysterious encounters with primitive bushman tribes and unavoidable dealings with belligerent local officials, and even near-fatal stampedes by rampaging wild animals. The book also incorporates by way of case histories a rich and diverse set of fieldwork experiences, insights and reflections on conducting geoscience and geoecology fieldwork in Africa, the health and safety issues that emerged, the solutions that were developed, and the realities of being in the field.

Through an absorbing narrative, a paean is presented of the long and unique traditions of geoscience and geoecology fieldwork in Africa, and the reader is provided with an inside view of the trials and joys of such an endeavor. The book offers a sketch of health and safety issues that geotourists too may face during geoscience and geoecology field expeditions and proffers measures to mitigate these. The science is accessibly laid out and richly embroidered with tales of the bush.

A Code for Geoscientific Fieldwork in Africa is an essential guide for both geoscience and geoecology undergraduates and postgraduate students, academics, and geotourists in Africa and from abroad embarking on mapping, mineral exploration, geoecological research and expeditions.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-033-1
ISBN: 978-1-53614-091-0

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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The Earth and Atmospheric Electricity

Author: Vladimir Shuleikin
Chief Researcher of the Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
According to the provisions of the surface atmospheric electricity theory, the space charge of the surface air layer owes its origin to ionization by exhaling soil radon. According to field observations, a model representation of relations between hydrogen, methane, radon, and surface atmospheric electricity elements is composed. Bubbles of two volatile gases carry soil radon from a depth of 4-6 m to the near-surface atmosphere. As a consequence, light ions produced by ionization determine polar conductivity of the surface air; light ion aggregation with neutral condensation nuclei produces heavy ions primarily responsible for the atmospheric electric field. This means that the surface atmospheric electricity is determined by local geology and geodynamics.

According to the field observations, the radon content in the surface soil layers is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of ionizer exhalation. A change in the soil radon content of a single percent will lead to a twofold change in the exhalation concentration, i.e., to a twofold change in the polar conductivities and the atmospheric electric field. This means that the surface atmospheric electricity elements will be extremely sensitive to variations in the subvertical carrier gas (hydrogen and methane) flow density.

The results of multiple field observations prove the correctness of the above assumptions. The increased soil-atmosphere air exchange above fault zones, the basement top settling area, and the zones of natural or human-made soil loosening leads to an abrupt decrease in the atmospheric electric field and an increase in the polar air conductivity. An increase in the sub-vertical flow density of hydrogen above the ore body cap or methane in the oil field plume inevitably leads to low values of the atmospheric electric field within the deposit boundaries. The effect can be increased by the presence of natural or human-made seismic excitation in geological environments.

The industrial level withdrawal of artesian waters is accompanied by a multiple increase in the atmospheric electric field above the area of hydrogeological processes; methane injection into the underground gas storage, industrial disposal of industrial wastewater leads to the opposite effect, i.e., a decrease of the atmospheric electric field. Taking into account the model constructed, complex measurements of surface atmospheric electricity elements—hydrogen and radon—allow for an indirect expression estimate of the soil methane content above the level of (10-6 – 10-5) vol.% and monitoring of the landslide stressed state.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-973-0
ISBN: 978-1-53613-974-7

Price: $95.00
Price: $95.00


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Telescopic Work for Starlight Evenings

Author: William F. Denning

Series: Space Science, Exploration and Policies

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
This book was written to be intelligible to general readers while also containing facts and figures useful to amateur astronomers at the time of its first printing in 1891. With the aid of many illustrations and the passionate wonder felt by astronomers of all levels and times, the author outlines the evolution of the telescope to the end of the nineteenth century and provides detailed instruction that is relevant and rich in historical value. No matter how humble the observer, or how paltry the telescope, astronomy is capable of furnishing an endless store of delight to its adherents. Its influences are elevating, and many of its features possess the charms of novelty as well as mystery. Whoever contemplates the heavens with the right spirit reaps both pleasure and profit, and many amateurs find a welcome relaxation to the cares of business in the companionship of their telescopes on “starlight evenings.”

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53614-230-3
ISBN: 978-1-53614-231-0

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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Red Sea: Historical Significance, Properties and Economic Importance

Editor: Delbert Robbins

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Red Sea: Historical Significance, Properties and Economic Importance opens with a discussion on oceanic spreading beginning in the Pliocene (~5 Ma) (after advanced continental drifting) and continuing to the present day, as demonstrated by the intense volcanic and seismic activity in the area during the last 10,000 years. The authors present geochemical features that are typical of mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), which allow the Red Sea to be regarded as a newborn ocean. Additionally, its development resembles the early stages of the Atlantic Ocean. Next, this compilation discusses the Wadi Masilah Basin in the southeasternmost part of Yemen, which hosts promising base metal and barite prospects. This terrain has a complex geological and structural history, including oblique divergence (transtension) related to the opening phases of the greater Red Sea. The fisheries reserve of the Sudanese Red Sea is dominated by different assemblages of ecologically and commercially important stock of invertebrates, demersal finfish and pelagic fish. The authors address how the national fisheries standing stock remains largely under-exploited with the exception of Mother of Pearl (Pinctada margeritifera) and Trochus (Tectus dentatus) which are efficiently utilized.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-200-7
ISBN: 978-1-53613-201-4

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Sedimentary Basins: Evolution, Methods of Formation and Recent Advances

Editor: Sam Brookes

Series: Geology and Mineralogy Research Developments

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this collection, the sedimentary basins of the northern Campania Tyrrhenian margin have been investigated in detail aimed at studying and reconstructing their Quaternary geologic evolution through seismo-stratigraphic data. This analysis, carried out using multichannel seismic data of the Zone E, has allowed to infer the subsurface volcanism in the Gaeta Gulf through the identification of a wide buried volcanic edifice, fossilized by the prograding sequences supplied by the Volturno river. This volcanism seems to be related to the oldest phases of volcanism in the Campania Plain, evidenced by the Parete and Villa Literno volcanic complexes, detected in the subsurface of the Campania Plain onshore. Continuing, the presence of volcano-sedimentary sequence in pull-apart basins has intrigued the geologists for several decades.
The authors explain that the extensional tectonic processes are not only responsible for formation of these basins but also eruption of volcanic units and emplacement of dykes swarms. High resolution seismic data processed by Pre-Stacking and Depth Migration (PSDM) and Pre-Stacking and Time Migration (PSTM) techniques and hundreds of drill-hole logs have made for an eloquent exposition of basin forming tectonics in different regions of India. Several case studies have also illustrated that the Pre-Cretaceous period is characterized by prolonged extensional tectonics, development of nearly vertical faults, subsidence and formation of basins and sedimentation. In the final chapter, the results obtained from several essays held with aliquots of a sample of the lithostratigraphic formation known as “Batateira Layers” are reported, occuring in the Araripe Sedimentary Basin, Ceará State, Brazil. The tests were realized with powdered aliquots, considering the oxides often used in geochemical investigations: SiO₂, Al₂O₃, TiO₂, Fe₂O₃, MnO, CaO, MgO, Na₂O, K₂O and P₂O₅. The maximum voltage and current were 50 kV and 50 mA, respectively.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-922-8
ISBN: 978-1-53613-923-5

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Oceanography of the Reef Corridor of the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico

Editors: José de Jesús Salas Pérez and Adán Guillermo Jordán-Garza
Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Carretera Tuxpan-Tampico, Tuxpan-Veracruz, México

Series: Oceanography and Ocean Engineering

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Oceanography of the coastal zone as an interdisciplinary science has received little attention, as most of the studies focus either on the physical oceanography or on the marine ecosystems, independently. The reef corridor of the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico offers the unique opportunity of doing research on meteorological events which affected currents, water masses and tides, but also the interaction with the many coral reefs found on the study region. The presence of these reefs interacts with the oceanographic processes, for example, by diffracting or refracting the tidal waves at different frequencies. These interactions have consequences on the biological and chemical composition of the water masses and drive the exchange of larvae between the reefs located on the northern, central and southern coast of the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico and even more remote areas such as the Caribbean or Florida. Yet, the oceanography of this region is poorly understood and more so the interactions with the important coastal ecosystems located along the coast. More studies relating oceanographic factors with biological processes in a scenario of global and local changes are needed. This work presents research on open questions dealing with the climatology of cold surges, the movement of water masses and tides, the upwelling and fertilizing process related to a permanent cyclonic eddy and the variability of chemical and biological processes related to the complex hydrodynamics on a coral reef system.
One of the main objectives of this book is pointing to the need of interdisciplinary research to understand the process that drives changes on the coastal ecosystems at local, regional and global scales.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-63483-599-2
ISBN: 978-1-53610-209-3

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna

Editors: Gaetan Huard and Jeannine Gareau

Series: Origin, Evolution and Geological History of the Earth

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this collection, the authors begin by discussing the Quaternary, the most recent geological period of time in Earth’s history spanning the last 2.588 million years. The Quaternary System is subdivided into the Pleistocene and the Holocene Series, with the Pleistocene spanning most of the Quaternary, while the Holocene covers the last 11 700 calendar year. In order to understand contemporary stratigraphic terms and subdivisions of the Quaternary, the historical background becomes necessary. Besides the traditional chronostratigraphical and geochronological division, the Quaternary was divided also climatostratigraphically based on the recorded climatic changes.
The following paper presents the results of geomorphological and geochronological studies within the highest southeastern part of Russian Altai. Geomorphological evidence of at least of two Pleistocene glacial epochs are mapped within the Chagan-Uzun river basin, and an analysis of all available absolute dates for the reference section is presented. The authors present a survey wherein information about over 200 species of small mammals is given concerning morphology, taxonomy, and distribution across more than 20 localities, covering the last 4.5 million years. A detailed biostratigraphic scheme has been developed, which is compared with independent sources of chronology. In this context, the paleoecological information provided by the individual regional biostratigraphic assemblages is analyzed, and the paleoecological reconstructions are correlated with global paleoclimatic evidence. After this, this book retraces fossil discoveries and significant evidences of big cats in Europe in order to describe their rise to top predators, as well as their recent fall resulting from climatic change and the increase in human population. At the present time, the group includes five species: Panthera leo, Panthera pardus, Panthera onca, Panthera tigris, and Panthera uncia. The final chapter includes a brief review of the late Pleistocene mammals from Mexico, pointing out recent findings concerning their paleobiology considering the recently documented record from areas of central and southern Mexico. This research allows for an increase in the number of fossil localities, determination of the taxonomic status of some artiodactyls, and characterization of the dietary traits of herbivore species by means of stable isotopes and dental wear patterns analyses.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-728-6
ISBN: 978-1-53613-729-3

Price: $195.00
Price: $195.00


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Horizons in Earth Science Research. Volume 18

Editors: Benjamin Veress and Jozsi Szigethy

Series: Horizons in Earth Science Research

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Horizons in Earth Science Research. Volume 18 opens with a chapter discussing the influence of canyons at the nearshore of river mouths on water dynamics and sediment transport, seawater intrusion into estuaries, and erosion-accumulative processes. The mouths of the rivers Congo and St. Lawrence are studied as examples of the effect of canyons of different genesis on estuary formation. Next, the authors use numerical examples to demonstrate qualitatively and quantitatively the variability of the Odum – Pianka ecosystem under different conditions. An analysis of stability shows that the Odum – Pianka ecosystem has two steady states. One of them corresponds to the situation when the total amount of the ecosystem material is accumulated in the mineral nutrition component, and the second steady state is stable and corresponds to the ecosystem equilibrium state.

Following this, the authors present depth determination and source characteristics for North Korean nuclear tests using body wave and surface wave spectra. The source depths for the 2016J, 2016S and 2017S nuclear tests were estimated at 2.11 km, 1.99 km and 1.99 km, respectively using spectral nulls of P- and S- wave and Rg-wave spectra. Also in this compilation, ethnography, folklore and historical information is analyzed in order to restore the ancient celestial sphere (with the use of a special astronomy application) and identify the correlations between the megalithic complexes of Shaori Mountain and the Sun and Moon eclipses.

Afterwards, a new Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (M-LMA), improved from the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA), was used to minimize back propagation errors in training a back propagation neural network (BPNN). To compare this capability, both M-LMA and LMA were used to trace the vertical component of the Chi-Chi earthquake with the same learning rates of 0.3. The results showed that M-LMA generated smaller tracing errors. In a separate study, measurements of in-situ magnetic susceptibility were compiled from mainly Precambrian crystalline basement rocks beneath the Colorado Plateau and ranges in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. The susceptibility meter used samples about 33 cubic centimeters of rock and measures variations in the modal distribution of magnetic minerals that form a minor component volumetrically in these coarsely crystalline granitic to granodioritic rocks. Finally, a horizontal gradient analysis of the isostatic gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly grids of the New Mexico-Arizona-southern California area was carried out, focused on eastern Arizona and western New Mexico, to define the transitional boundary between the Proterozoic Yavapai province to the west and the Mazatzal province to the east. The two provinces differ substantially in their favorability to host Laramide porphyry copper deposits.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-763-7
ISBN: 978-1-53613-764-4

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Archipelagos: Types, Characteristics and Conservation

Editors: Mabel Perez and Juana Mills

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Archipelagos: Types, Characteristics and Conservation begins by examining the Canary Islands and their characteristic orography and regime of winds that affect this archipelago. Investigations were carried out by the authors which allowed for the characterization of the atmospheric corrosion for metals of wide industrial use.
Due to its geographical location, the Azores archipelago is one of the perfect places to observe and study the characteristics of atmospheric processes. The remote conditions of the islands allow for the monitoring of greenhouse gases without the influence of local sources of pollution. Consequences of climate change are also discussed.
The closing chapter discusses a new paradigm in the sol-gel synthesis, particularly in the synthesis of bioactive glass. In this new approach, the deionized water is replaced by highly ionized and naturally acidified thermal water collected from springs located in Furnas Volcano. Given the potential impact of these waters on the structure and bioactivity of sol-gel bioactive glass, special emphasis is given to their genesis, physicochemical properties and ionic diversity.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53614-681-3
ISBN: 978-1-53614-682-0

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00