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Glaciology for Glacial Geologists

Author: Terence J. Hughes (Professor Emeritus of Earth Sciences and Climate Change, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA)

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century

Publication Date: 2017 - 4th Quarter

Book Description:
We live in the Quaternary Ice Age, the last million years when large ice sheets covered much of North America and Eurasia, with successive glaciations lasting about 90,000 years interspersed with interglaciations lasting about 10,000 years, such as our preset Holocene interglaciation. Quaternary glaciations were discovered and mapped by glacial geologists from evidence for glacial erosion and deposition on a large scale. Glaciology began as a descriptive branch of geology and has become a quantitative branch of physics. Glaciology and glacial geology are two sides of the same coin. Glaciologists study ice dynamics to model present and past ice sheets. Glacial geologists study the evidence produced by ice dynamics, evidence that controls the models. This book is written for glacial geologists that have a modest exposure to mathematics so they can understand the fundamental link between glaciology and glacial geology. This link is the height of an ice sheet above its bed. Ice height depends primarily on the strength of ice-bed coupling. The stronger the coupling, the higher the ice, and therefore the larger the ice sheet. Glacial geology allows an assessment of ice-bed coupling. Coupling weakens under the interior of an ice sheet when a frozen bed thaws and thereby allows ice to slide over the bed to produce glacial geology by erosion and deposition processes. Coupling weakens much more near ice-sheet margins where ice moves as fast currents called ice streams, under which ice-bed coupling vanishes where basal water drowns bedrock bumps or soaks basal sediments.
The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter One shows how glacial geology can be used to quantify the strength of ice-bed coupling. Chapter Two quantifies how coupling is weakened when a frozen bed thaws for slow sheet flow in the interior of an ice sheet, thereby lowering the ice surface. Chapter Three quantifies how the surface is lowered much more toward the margin of an ice sheet where basal water partly downs the bed along linear topography (river valleys, coastal straits, etc.), allowing for slow sheet flow to become fast stream flow. Chapter Four quantifies the ability of large partly confined floating ice shelves to reduce the discharge from fast ice streams entering the sea. Chapter Five discusses glacial geology produced by Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during a cycle of Quaternary glaciation, with a white hole needed to initiate an ice sheet, marine ice transgression needed to grow it, and marine ice instability needed to terminate it; these are all linked to glacial geology. Chapter Six shows how the Arctic ice sheet can be reconstructed during a cycle of Quaternary glaciation using glacial geology. Chapter Seven shows how glacial geology can be mapped under the Antarctic ice sheet as it exists today, with an emphasis on ongoing gravitational collapse of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet, grounded mostly below sea level in the Western Hemisphere.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-793-5
ISBN: 978-1-53612-794-2

Price: $195.00
Price: $195.00


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Hydroxyapatite and Other Calcium Orthophosphates: Bioceramics, Coatings and Dental Applications

Author: Sergey V. Dorozhkin (Moscow, Russia)

Series: Biomaterials - Properties, Production and Devices

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
As the inorganic constituents of skeletons, dentine and the enamel of teeth in all vertebrates, as well as antlers of male deer, calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) appear to be the key materials to sustain all life on Earth. Therefore, biologically relevant CaPO4 possess all the necessary features of the biomaterials, such as biocompatibility, bioactivity, bioresorbability, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity, and appear to be non-toxic, non-inflammatory and non-immunogenic. In this book, the author presents current state-of-the-art applications of CaPO4 as bioceramics, deposits (coatings, films and layers) and in dentistry. Topics discussed include chemical composition and preparation, forming and shaping, sintering and firing for CaPO4-based bioceramics, chemical composition and preparation, pre- and post-deposition treatments for CaPO4-based deposits, followed by the detailed description of their major properties, biomedical applications and in vivo behavior. The detailed description of current CaPO4 applications in dentistry both for dental caries prevention and as various types of dental treatments is given in the last section of this book.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53611-897-1
ISBN: 978-1-53611-916-9

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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Hydroxyapatite and Other Calcium Orthophosphates: General Information and History

Author: Sergey V. Dorozhkin (Moscow, Russia)

Series: Biomaterials - Properties, Production and Devices

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
As the inorganic constituents of skeletons, dentine and the enamel of teeth in all vertebrates, as well as antlers of male deer, calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) appear to be the key materials to sustain all life on Earth. Therefore, biologically relevant CaPO4 possess all the necessary features of the biomaterials, such as biocompatibility, bioactivity, bioresorbability, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity, and appear to be non-toxic, non-inflammatory and non-immunogenic. In this book, the author presents current state-of-the-art applications on the occurrence, major properties and biomimetic crystallization of CaPO4, as well as information on their history. Topics discussed include the geological and biological occurrences, a brief description of all known members of the CaPO4 family, their presence and major functions in the hard tissues of living organisms as both desired (normal) and undesired (pathological) calcifications, as well as the available information on biomimetic crystallization. The detailed description of the historical development of our knowledge on CaPO4 is given in the second section of this book.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53611-901-5
ISBN: 978-1-53611-921-3

Price: $195.00
Price: $195.00


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Hydroxyapatite and Other Calcium Orthophosphates: Nanodimensional, Multiphasic and Amorphous Formulations

Author: Sergey V. Dorozhkin (Moscow, Russia)

Series: Biomaterials - Properties, Production and Devices

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
As the inorganic constituents of skeletons, dentine and the enamel of teeth in all vertebrates, as well as antlers of male deer, calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) appear to be the key materials to sustain all life on Earth. Therefore, biologically relevant CaPO4 possess all the necessary features of the biomaterials, such as biocompatibility, bioactivity, bioresorbability, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity, and appear to be non-toxic, non-inflammatory and non-immunogenic. In this book, the author presents current state-of-the-art applications on three popular types of CaPO4: nano-scaled (nano-dimensional), multiphasic (polyphasic) and amorphous CaPO4. Topics discussed include the preparation, structure, composition, properties and biomedical applications of these types of CaPO4 combined with the specific information for each type. Namely, occurrence in the calcified tissue of mammals is discussed for both nano-scaled and amorphous types of CaPO4; both known and potential formulations, as well as their stability are discussed for multiphasic CaPO4, while both the morphology and the available knowledge on amorphous-to-crystalline transformations are discussed for amorphous CaPO4.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53611-902-2
ISBN: 978-1-53611-922-0

Price: $195.00
Price: $195.00


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Hydroxyapatite and Other Calcium Orthophosphates: Biocomposites, Self-Setting Formulations and Dissolution

Author: Sergey V. Dorozhkin (Moscow, Russia)

Series: Biomaterials - Properties, Production and Devices

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
As the inorganic constituents of skeletons, dentine and the enamel of teeth in all vertebrates, as well as antlers of male deer, calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) appear to be the key materials to sustain all life on Earth. Therefore, biologically relevant CaPO4 possess all the necessary features of the biomaterials, such as biocompatibility, bioactivity, bioresorbability, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity, and appear to be non-toxic, non-inflammatory and non-immunogenic. In this book, the author presents current state-of-the-art applications of CaPO4 as biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials, self-setting formulations, as well as the workings of their dissolution mechanism. Topics discussed include the major constituents of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials for bone grafting, preparation, properties and the available knowledge on interactions among the phases for various types of CaPO4-based biocomposites. Additionally, the major types, preparation, properties and the available knowledge on the reinforced formulations for various types of self-setting CaPO4-based compositions, followed by the detailed description of their biomedical applications and in vivo behavior are discussed. The comprehensive description of currently available dissolution mechanisms of calcium apatites in acids, followed by the successful attempt to create the general dissolution mechanism is given in the last section of this book.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53611-936-7
ISBN: 978-1-53611-975-6

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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The Wetlands of India

Author: Krishna Mazumdar (Retired Professor of Economics, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India)

Series: Coastal and Oceanic Landforms, Development and Management

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
Wetlands are the vital link between land and water. They support unique flora and fauna as well as provide ecological services that are beneficial to society Wetlands are among the most important and productive ecosystems on Earth. India is blessed with water resources and has a rich diversity of inland and coastal wetlands. Wetlands in India are distributed from the cold arid Trans-Himalayan zone to the wet Teri region of the Himalayan foothills, to the Gangetic plains extended to the flood-plains of Brahmaputra, and to the swamps of Northeastern India including the saline expanses of Gujarat and Rajasthan.

This study is about three major natural wetlands of Eastern India: Sundarbans, Chilika and Kolleru. The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world. It covers an area of about 1 m. ha. Sixty percent of this wetland is located in Bangladesh and the rest of the forty percent is in India. The Indian part of the Sundarbans is situated in the western part of the Ganges–Brahmaputra delta, and is extended from the Hooghly River in the west to the Raimangal River in the southeastern portion of the West Bengal State, spreading over two districts: North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas.

The Chilika is the world’s second largest brackish water lagoon, and it is situated along the east coast of India in the state of Orissa on the Bay of Bengal with an area of 116,500 ha. The Chilika is extended over eight blocks of three districts; these districts are known as Ganjam, Khurda and Puri. This pear-shaped lake is about 64.5 km. long; its width varies from 18 km. to 5 km. The water spread area of the lake varies from 906 sq. km. to 1165 sq. km. depending upon the seasons.

The Kolleru Lake is extended over the Krishna and West Godavari districts along the east coast of India in the state of Andra Pradesh. Kolleru is a large natural freshwater lake, with the catchment area being 4763 sq. km. Although the lake is about 35 km. inland from the present coast, it used to be a coastal lagoon in the past. Kolleru still maintains its connection with the Bay of Bengal through a 60 km long tidal channel called Upputeru. The average depth of the lake varies from 0.5 m. to 2.0m.

This study offers a new sampling design; blocks in and around the specific wetland were stratified into three clusters, according to their distance from the specified wetland. Samples were chosen mostly from the blocks closest to the wetland, with minimal samples chosen from the blocks most distant from the wetland. Four different schedules were canvassed to four different groups of people: householders, entrepreneurs, tourists, and experts on wetlands.

A new approach has been introduced for valuing the wetlands. This approach attempts to combine valuation of a wetland to the aforementioned groups of people. It also attempts to incorporate the valuation of the wetlands when used for other purposes.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-041-7
ISBN: 978-1-53612-062-2

Price: $160.00
Price: $160.00


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Deglaciation: Processes, Causes and Consequences

Editor: Marcella Boone

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century

Publication Date: 2017 – 3rd Quarter

Book Description:
Global climate during the Quaternary has been deeply influenced by glacial-interglacial oscillations. As a result, the Earth has experienced alternations between warm and stable climatic periods – coinciding with interglacials, and cold and highly variable climatic intervals – coinciding with glacials. In a suborbital timescale, climate oscillations were maximal during glacial onsets and, very especially, during deglaciations. Previous deglaciation events were associated with diverse changes in earth’s atmospheric, physical and biotic environments and an examination of such interrelationships requires the establishment of a competent temporal framework. Accordingly, chapter one examines dating methods that can be used to provide temporal constraints to continental deglaciation events. To illustrate the range of considerations that could accompany a deglaciation dating study, the chapter also gives a brief outline of a case study conducted in western Canada to constrain the Late Pleistocene retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the region. Chapter Two reports on the influence of deglaciations in the mid-latitude European climate. Chapter Three aims to highlight the influence of global and regional paleoceanographic changes on the deglaciation of the marine based Barents ice sheet since the last glacial maximum (LGM) until the onset of marine environment in the Holocene.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-501-6
ISBN: 978-1-53612-518-4

Price: $95.00
Price: $95.00


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Aquifers: Properties, Roles and Research

Editor: Heather Bailey

Series: Water Resource Planning, Development and Management

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
Groundwater is a major concern for the human community as it is the most important and reliable source of freshwater supply on earth. It is a renewable and finite natural resource, vital for man's life, socio-economic development and it is a valuable component of the ecosystem. However, groundwater is vulnerable to both natural and human impacts. An aquifer is an underground porous rock formation which allows water to move through it. Water wells are drilled through aquifers for easier access to groundwater in many areas and is sometimes the only access to fresh water. This book discusses the properties, roles, and provides further new research on aquifers.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53611-069-2
ISBN: 978-1-53611-084-5

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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The Andes: Geography, Diversity, and Sociocultural Impacts

Editor: Casey D. Allen (Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA)

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
Second only to the Himalayas in size, the Andes represent a fascinating region of our world. Written by regional experts and drawing on field-based endeavors of several researchers, each chapter encompasses a timely topic, from climate-related studies and historical occupations to indigenous manufacturing and recent archaeological evidence. If you want to know what types of research are currently being conducted in the Andes, this book will surely satisfy.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53611-094-4
ISBN: 978-1-53611-307-5

Price: $95.00
Price: $95.00


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Crystal Growth: Concepts, Mechanisms and Applications

Editors: Jinjin Li, Jianwei Li and Yanhui Chu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. China)

Series: Geology and Mineralogy Research Developments

Publication Date: 2017 - 4th Quarter

Book Description:
With the highly competitive development of pharmaceutical and chemical industries, mastering crystal growth is becoming increasingly important. Modern industrial manufacturers place high importance on the ability to grow novel crystals with a specific habit and improve the performance of existed crystals using tailored operating conditions. Therefore, the ability to synthesize a particular morphology and to predict the crystal morphology of new compounds is becoming even more desirable. The recent development of crystal growth is vital for researchers in crystallography and crystallization to respond and realize this objective. With this need in mind, this book mainly targeted at introducing crystal growth from three aspects ranging from basic concepts and detailed mechanisms to advanced applications in hot areas of materials science. This book introduces various experimental and theoretical methods to grow different crystals, which includes the techniques to grow single crystals, CaCO3 polymorphs, metal-organic crystals, liquid crystals, fenamate crystals, cocrystals, and the theoretical models to predict the crystal morphologies within a different environment. From these carefully selected contents, readers will not only learn of the basic theory and experimental techniques implemented, but also keep abreast with both state-of-the-art crystal growth and its overlap with other subjects.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-203-9
ISBN: 978-1-53612-226-8

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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Horizons in Earth Science Research. Volume 17

Editors: Benjamin Veress and Jozsi Szigethy

Series: Horizons in Earth Science Research

Publication Date: 2017 - 4th Quarter

Book Description:
Horizons in Earth Science Research. Volume 17 opens with a discussion about the attainment of a new multichannel seismic profile in the Volturno Basin, located in the Northern Campania continental shelf of the Southern Tyrrhenian margin of Italy. This multichannel seismic profile has permitted geological sections to be constructed and interpreted to study the correlation between seismic units individuated through the seismo-stratigraphic techniques. Next, a conversation about the idea that human built structures can be studied as a geological system is presented. It will be argued that considering human works in the context of geological processes can be traced back, at least, to Lyell's works that set the foundations of modern Geology. One of the largest plutonic bodies in the European Variscan belt, Moldanubian batholith, is studied for composition, with the findings including coarse-grained, porphyritic I/S-type biotite granites to granodiorites of the Weinsberg suite, (2) two-mica S-type granites of the Eisgarn suite and (3) fine to medium-grained, and I/S-type biotite granodiorites of the Freistadt/Mauthausen suite. An analysis of satellite gravimetry is presented using several applied methodologies including entropial and information transformations, computing of various derivatives, coherence features and multistatistical characteristics, inverse probability, and advanced downward continuation. This book includes a chapter focused on the chemical and biological properties of the water in salt lakes in order to understand the mechanisms of the organisms adaptation to extreme conditions in hypersaline biotope. The history of the application of radiometric dating of speleothems physically related to rock art is reviewed to show that there are significant issues with both radiocarbon analysis and 230Th/234U analysis of carbonate precipitates in limestone caves. A geochemical and thermochronological study designed for the elucidation of the burial and exhumation history of an extensive pull-apart basin conducted on the East Eurasian longstanding convergent margin is presented. Several tests are described using an S8 Tiger spectrometer from Bruker Co., belonging to LARIN (Ionizing Radiations Laboratory) and UNESPetro (Geosciences Center Applied to Petroleum), IGCE-UNESP-Rio Claro (SP), Brazil. Next, Ions in water samples collected from rivers and wells are examined. In closing, a study comparing surface-to-volume (SV) allometries of natural water bodies and of the living systems inhabiting them is presented.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-831-4
ISBN: 978-1-53612-832-1

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Horizons in Earth Science Research. Volume 15

Editors: Benjamin Veress and Jozsi Szigethy

Series: Horizons in Earth Science Research

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
This book explores the most recent developments in earth science research. Chapter One discusses the geologic and ancient history of Dahr Safra, Syria. Chapter Two reviews the geographical distribution and geological occurrence of diatom ooze to diatomaceous sediments (diatomite) around the Japanese Islands, the Bering Sea and the Pacific coastal side of Peru and Chile, South America. Chapter Three explores the nature of tectonics and of axial tilt of the Earth. Chapter Four examines the major defects in the Toledo Bend Dam. Chapter Five proposes a projected-Gradient method for joint nonnegative matrix factorization to pansharpen multispectral data. Chapter Six discusses the main types of uranium deposits formed in a variety of geological and tectonic environments. Chapter Seven studies the unmixing of geological events by Gaussian deconvolution on Th-U-Pb age multicomponent data of monazite crystals of granite from São Francisco Craton (Brazil). Chapter Eight focuses on the properties and uses of the lanthanide series. Chapter Nine discusses concurrent design optimization of satellites and reconfigurable constellations. Chapter Ten assesses and compares vegetation indices, surface emissivity models and split-window algorithms used to estimate surface temperature from satellite images.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-63485-696-6
ISBN: 978-1-63485-718-5

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Horizons in Earth Science Research. Volume 16

Editors: Benjamin Veress and Jozsi Szigethy

Series: Horizons in Earth Science Research

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
Chapter one reports the results of a radiometric survey performed at the main installations of DPM-Department of Petrology and Metallogeny of IGCE-Institute of Geosciences and Exacts Sciences belonging to UNESP, Rio Claro (SP), Brazil, whose major task has been to realize researches with crystalline rocks. The acquired dataset is presented and discussed in terms of possible implications for human health. Chapter two aims to map the spatial distribution of various land cover types at the surface of the Ghuwaymid sabkha using L1B ASTER data. Chapter three discusses if the zone of shearing is treated as a separate layer (Layer of Lateral Anisotropy and Mass Advection, LLAMA), it can remain isolated from the convecting mantle but be only partially attached to the overlying plate. As such it may serve as a long-lived shallow source for intraplate volcanism if it undergoes suitable metasomatic enrichment. Chapter four applies statistical and geochemical modeling techniques to an extensive major and trace element composition database for 86 samples from eight outcrops. A statistical comparison scheme applied to diverse geochemical ratios discards a genetic link between San Felipe volcanic ashes and regional contemporary magmatic localities. In Chapter five, Subsidence dolines are described. Additionally, the morphological environment of subsidence dolines of glaciokarst, the bearing cover, their size, their morphology and features of their activity are characterised. Chapter six provides new insight into the formation of high-grade precious-metal ores in low-sulfidation deposits. The chapter presents textural evidence for formation of electrum flocs in a boiling environment under epithermal conditions. Chapter seven suggests that a large low shear velocity province beneath Columbia would have triggered mantle plumes after the arrival of 2.0 Ga to 1.8 Ga active subducting slabs in the lower mantle. Columbia breakup attempt could have been started in such Large Igneous Provinces regions, where rifting processes may have occurred. Finally, Chapter eight examines what we define as legally relevant "outer space" and who has legal competence in space to begin with? These issues are considered in regard to potential outer space warfare: its legality, pros and cons, as well as its probability.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53611-852-0
ISBN: 978-1-53611-893-3

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00