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Biochemical Techniques: Development and Implementation for Making Differences in Aquaculture and Fisheries Research on Environmental Impact and Climate Change

Author: Krisna Rungruangsak-Torrissen (Principal Research Scientist, Institute of Marine Research, Norway, Matre Research Station, Matredal, Norway)

Series: Fish, Fishing and Fisheries

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
This extraordinary book is the result of over three decades of Dr. Krisna Rungruangsak-Torrissen’s career at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. The book provides new insights into a series of growth mechanisms in aquatic living resources through the digestion and utilization of dietary protein for growth and maturation. Chapter One shows the initial success of the relationships between genetic variations in trypsin phenotypes, growth, and feed efficiency; additionally, the isoelectric focusing technique to differentiate trypsin phenotypes has been developed. Chapter Two shows the other successes concerning the effects of temperatures and consumption rates on trypsin phenotypes, growth, and feed efficiency, wherein the first evidence of temperature preferences on feed efficiency and growth dependent on trypsin phenotypes of individuals has been observed. The unique studies of digestive efficiency and growth status have been developed through the activity ratio of trypsin to chymotrypsin (T/C ratio) for growth potential, with the new knowledge of chymotrypsin involving limited and reduced growth rates. Chapter Three shows insight into the utilization of dietary protein through absorption and transport of free amino acids (FAA), indicating that the levels of plasma FAA and white muscle FAA are dependent on trypsin phenotypes and dietary protein quality. The new buffers of the HPLC system for differentiating more than 40 physiological FAA in biological tissues have been developed. A possibility of white muscle free-hydroxyproline levels related to growth rate has been observed. Chapter Four explains protein growth efficiency dependent on the genetics of growth capacity and dietary protein levels, whereas a higher level of dietary protein can increase skeletal growth (length) resulting in lower condition factors. The new determinations of RNA and protein by a single separation step have been developed. Chapter Five shows the first success on studies of maturation rate in females through active oocyte protein breakdown, using the activity ratio of trypsin-like to chymotrypsin-like (T/C ratio) enzymes in the oocytes. Chapters Six and Seven show the in vitro digestibility techniques using dialyzed crude digestive enzyme extracts for quality assessments of dietary protein and carbohydrates, uniquely standardized with respect to the activities of trypsin and amylase, respectively, for comparisons among different enzyme extracts. It is evident that dietary protein is the primary important nutrient while dietary carbohydrates are the secondary important nutrients, regardless of animal feeding habits (carnivores, omnivores, herbivores). Chapter Eight illustrates the uniqueness of the different biochemical techniques for implementations in natural marine ecosystems of the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, including the development of the neural computational model GrowthEstimate through digestive efficiency for future studies of aquatic living resources without knowing their histories concerning food availability, consumption rates, and growth. Chapter Nine concludes the importance and usefulness of the biochemical techniques, and describes how to collect the samples.
The knowledge from this book can be beneficial for lecturers, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, and any readers who are interested in nutritional biochemistry. It will provide new perspectives, ideas, and inspiration for finding a new way to make a difference in doing research.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-175-8
ISBN: 978-1-53613-176-5

Price: $160.00
Price: $160.00


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Microbiological Environmental Hygiene

Editor: Eino Elias Hakalehto, Ph.D. (Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland)

Series: Microbiological Hygiene (Series Editor - Eino Elias Hakalehto, Ph.D. - Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland)

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Environmental microbiological hygiene can be divided into two mainstreams:
1. Monitoring of microbiological strains, and
2. Investigations on the circulation in the human and natural ecosystems by the micro-organisms.
Increased understanding of the key role of environmental microbiology in the planetary survival strategy is a prerequisite for the transformation of human societies into sustainable economies.
The book Microbiological Environmental Hygiene contains descriptions of the microbes and natural ecosystems from rain forests to arctic areas, as well as strains in the cleaning processes of human epithelia and food or water sources. It gives an insight into microbiological hygiene in various industrial effluents and focuses also on the prospects of environmental biotechnology, protection by natural and organic compounds, as well as against contamination or epidemics. This microbiological safety is monitored also in traffic systems and vessels.
Different effects of climate change can be seen in the microbial ecosystems. It is essential to learn from the microbes and to develop the ecosystem services that allow humans to understand the ways they could be collaborated. This helps in cleaning up the soil, water and air. Also, the recalcitrant substances and plastics can get degraded by the microbes. Screening and source-tracking of water contaminations, as well as the promotion of soil fertility by microbes are presented. Both traditional microbiology and molecular methods are needed for the monitoring and research of the microbial agents. Microbiomes in the biosphere exercise interactions with other organisms, and they contribute to environmental health issues. Various groups of important micro-organisms are presented, such as environmental viruses and various bacteria, molds and yeasts, protozoa and algae.
The utilization of biological organisms’ potential is studied for novel solutions. Microbiological Environmental Hygiene is the fourth part in a series on microbiological hygiene. This book combines the different fields of microbiology into a holistic view on the functions of the ecosystems and the cycles of matter, as well as the sustainable production of biochemical, fuels, gases and organic fertilizers with the help of microbes and their enzymes.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-178-9
ISBN: 978-1-53613-179-6

Price: $345.00
Price: $345.00


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Carbonic Anhydrases: Biochemistry, Mechanism of Action and Therapeutic Applications

Editor: Joni Penttinen

Series: Biochemistry Research Trends

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this compilation, the authors address the relationship between carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia. Hypoxia is a key factor influencing a life-cycle of CA IX, including its expression, correct structure, stability, function, and subsequent biological implications. Hypoxia also regulates CA IX expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms through splicing and mRNA stabilization. A review is provided focusing on the sequence of elementary reactions ensuing a catalytic reaction (catalytic mechanism) of carbonic anhydrase. The closing chapter discusses carbonic anhydrases in chloroplasts, especially their location in the organelles, as well as considers their uses.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-262-5
ISBN: 978-1-53613-263-2

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Advances in Genetics Research. Volume 18

Editor: Kevin V. Urbano

Series: Advances in Genetics Research

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this collection, the authors present research supporting the claim that the study of autochthonous microbial communities is of crucial importance for understanding the genetic and biotechnological potential of bioremediation in environments close to the areas of extraction and susceptible to contamination. They discuss the main characteristics of petroleum, including its exploitation aspects, the process of geological formation, and environmental impacts. Following this, this book suggests that in case of accidental defects occurring in any part of the system, a coordinated counteraction of numerous mediators may successfully help in the restoration of physiologic processes by means of either overexpression or hyperactivity. Even serious defects of genome stabilizer mechanisms may be kept in balance for a long duration, showing the clinical signs of good health. The authors go on to discuss Rett Syndrome, a rare, neurodevelopmental genetic disorder that develops in early childhood and influences many functions within neurobehavioural domains. The core of phenotype symptoms includes severe linguistic and motor impairments. The correlations between genotype and motor abilities in subjects with Rett Syndrome are discussed. Next, this book examines Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) (also known as Bushy syndrome, Amsterdam dwarfism and Brachmann- de Lange syndrome) a genetic multi system disorder, usually caused by spontaneous mutation. The estimated occurence is about 1:10,000-30,000 births. A separate paper is presented illustrating the clinical variability of cognitive-behavioral phenotype in the different SCAs, determining that a precise identification of the cognitive and behavioral phenotype in different SCAs may enhance the clinical treatment, anticipatory guidance, and care throughout the lifespan. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive, painless brain stimulation treatment, is examined. tDCS uses direct electrical currents of low intensity to stimulate specific parts of the brain.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-264-9
ISBN: 978-1-53613-265-6

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Solanaceae: Cultivation, Nutrition and Health

Editor: Isabelle Sousa Rocha

Series: Plant Science Research and Practices

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In Solanaceae: Cultivation, Nutrition and Health, the authors first set out to demonstrate how utilization of soil amendments in agricultural systems is an inexpensive means for limited-resource farmers looking for improvements in crop yield and quality to satisfy consumer needs of healthy food. A separate study considers the variety of biological activities, together with the nutritional composition and low cytotoxicity, of the mature fruits of S. lycocarpum in order to demonstrate that they represent an important food source with chemopreventive and therapeutic properties. Next, the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant, antibacterial, and allelopathic activities of methanol extract and fractions from ripe fruits of S. lycocarpum were studied to provide knowledge on the total phenolic and total flavonoid content in the methanol extract and fractions, as well as the antioxidant, antibacterial, and allelopathic activities. Afterwards, the oils, fatty acids, and methyl esters from S. lycocarpum fruits were evaluated for their antioxidant potential and allelopathic activity. The allelopathic effect against the seedlings of Lactuca sativa and Allium cepa showed promising results, with predominant effects of growth inhibition of hypocotyls and radicles in the lower concentration tested. In the concluding study, the effects of the ethanol extract and hydroethanol fraction of S. lycocarpum leaves on the growth of the Ehrlich experimental tumor were evaluated using three experimental groups.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-268-7
ISBN: 978-1-53613-269-4

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 128

Editor: Leon V. Berhardt

Series: Advances in Medicine and Biology

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 128, the authors provide evidence that several families of GPCRs dynamically modulate microglial phenotypes and provide evidence that aberrations in G-protein coupled receptors-mediated signaling are prime contributors to a loss of homeostatic microglia states. A comprehensive landscape on the physiological conditions already known to be important for dendritic cell (DC) differentiation is included. Specifically: presenting stages of development of bone marrow stem cells; comparing the ontogeny of DCs in mice and humans; debating the differences between conventional DCs versus plasmacytoid DCs; highlighting that Langerhans cells (LCs) have different origins; discussing factors that may modulate the development of DC subsets; and emphasizing ontogenetic properties of DCs that make them different from monocytes and macrophages. Next, the authors review ex vivo and in vitro studies about the effects of human soluble fibrinogen molecule on blood components behavior and its effects at physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as in vitro studies conducted in experimental animal models. The tacrolimus (TAC) metabolism is reviewed in a separate study which proposes the TAC metabolism rate (C/D ratio) as a novel tool to assist physicians in risk stratification to individualize therapy in patients after (renal) transplantation. Continuing, the book postulates that modulation of nitric oxide (NO) concentrations at the maternal-fetal interface is relevant for maintaining early gestation due to failures in vascular adaptations. NO regulates vascular tone, angiogenesis, and cellular aggregation and adhesion, which are important functions in establishing and maintaining normal pregnancy. This book also presents the research and development of a collaborative, social-networked approach to train elementary and middle-school students so that the students can be aware of their bad sitting posture and timely improve it. Results show that the proposed approach and the developed posture training tools were very effective in improving teens’ posture.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-272-4
ISBN: 978-1-53613-273-1

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Sunscreens: Source, Formulations, Efficacy and Recommendations

Editor: Rajesh P Rastogi, Ph.D. (Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Research in Environment (RE) Division, Indira Paryavaran Bhavan, New Delhi, India)

Series: Biochemistry Research Trends

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
During the past few decades, the increased incidence of solar UV radiations (280-400 nm) and its harmful impacts, particularly on human skin have fueled worldwide concern to search for an effective UV sunscreen compound with the ability to provide maximum photoprotection. Several synthetic suncare products available in the international market may cause negative side effects that can't be overlooked. A number of biomolecules have been reported from different natural sources with great UV absorbing/screening functions. There is a need to explore the photoprotective role of these various natural UV sunscreening compounds so that they can find applications in UV-screening cosmetics for the benefit of human beings.
The present book Sunscreens: Source, Formulations, Efficacy and Recommendations provide an overview of the current knowledge of the various sunscreening compounds along with their sources, formulations, and efficacy as well as recommendations with regard to the photoprotective function in response to intense solar radiations. This book describes the recent progress and fundamental backgrounds of various UV absorbing or sunscreening compounds derived from different sources. An effort has been made to provide substantial information on various natural sunscreening molecules and their potentials as an arsenal of effective sunscreen ingredients meant for adequate protection from harmful UV radiations. Different chapters of the book address various questions pertaining to the naturally sourced sunscreen from microorganisms to higher plants, ideal for the formulations of sun care and cosmeceutical products. Undoubtedly, the contents of the book would be highly useful for graduate/postgraduate students, teachers, biochemists, and researchers in the fields of cosmetic science, photobiology, medical microbiology, and metabolic engineers engaged in the formulations and development of broad spectrum natural sunscreens or anti-aging products.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-294-6
ISBN: 978-1-53613-295-3

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 129

Editor: Leon V. Berhardt

Series: Advances in Medicine and Biology

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this collection, the authors review novel findings strongly suggesting that YS110, a humanized monoclonal antibody with high affinity to the CD26 antigen, represents a promising novel therapy for refractory cancers, immune disorders and MERS-CoV infection. This book show that in vivo administration of YS110 inhibits tumor cell growth, migration and invasion, and enhances survival of mouse xenograft models inoculated with malignant mesothelioma (MPM), renal cell carcinoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma or T-cell lymphoma via multiple mechanisms of action. Afterwards, several of the antibacterial resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria are discussed, especially those that can be targeted by novel antibacterial agents to combat resistant organisms. These mechanisms include alterations of cell wall or cell wall metabolites, mutations in antibiotic target, antibiotic deactivation by bacterial enzymes and biofilm formation. Later, the authors introduce AdRx as a treatment modality in musculo-skeletal pain, explain its rationale and techniques offering indications and contraindications for its usage. While AdRx takes its original theory from Eunice Ingham’s teaching and from followers of her teachings, this chapter confines the content to AdRx as standalone therapy in the context of musculo-skeletal pain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is also introduced as a non-invasive monitoring method that allows continuous real-time monitoring of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a small area of the frontal cortex. This monitoring tool is based on the principle that some biological materials are relatively permeable to near-infrared light. In a separate study, trans-synaptic tracing from the visually responsive sites in the superior colliculus to the retina were studied using attenuated pseudorabies virus. The results demonstrated the presence of synaptic connections between the transplant and the host retina that contribute to the visual improvement observed in the superior colliculus. Continuing, in 2015, a novel pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (the Hruska Postulate) was published. The authors aim to take what is known about Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, and the Hruska Postulate and determine why Crohn’s disease is potentially curable. Several researchers have been trying to identify biomarkers that can be used for Crohn’s disease in clinical practice, however, further studies are required in order to validate most of their findings. The closing chapter introduces several diagnostic imaging techniques for kidney stone detection. A new imaging technique of C-arm tomosynthesis is described to generate volumetric information of the kidney to identify the size and location of kidney stones with limited amount of radiation dose.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-347-9
ISBN: 978-1-53613-348-6

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Helper T Cells: Types, Functions and New Research

Editor: Brando Boudewijn

Series: Immunology and Immune System Disorders

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Helper T Cells: Types, Functions and New Research presents current research in the Tfh cell research field with a special focus on the maintenance of TFH cells and their fate once the immune response has resolved. Whereas early steps of Tfh cell generation have been the subject of intense research in recent years, much less is known about signals controlling Tfh cells in late phases of the germinal center reaction and their differentiation into long-term memory cells. The authors also discuss emerging evidence that CD4+ T cells orchestrate antitumor immunity by providing critical immunological help to B cells, facilitating isotype switching and affinity maturation, and CD8+ T cells, promoting effector and memory differentiation, as well as shaping innate immunity and the tumor microenvironment. While preventing autoimmunity, selective CD4+ T-cell tolerance also compromises immunity to malignant cells that express primarily self-antigens by eliminating CD4+ T-cell help for B-cell, CD8+ T-cell, and innate immune responses. Therefore, the authors suggest that the goal of cancer immunotherapeutics should be increasingly focused on overcoming the CD4+ T-cell tolerance barrier to negate the effects of tolerance-driven immune suppression and maximize antitumor responses. Next, data is presented showing that AIT reduces the expression of CD40L glycoprotein on T CD4+ cells from patients with pollen or Hymenoptera venom allergy when were treated with specific immunotherapy compared to patients not subject to treatment. The function of CD4 T lymphocytes in the development of allergy is discussed, along with the recent results obtained about the impact of AIT on CD40L expression on T helper lymphocytes of patients.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-070-6
ISBN: 978-1-53613-071-3

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 127

Editor: Leon V. Berhardt

Series: Advances in Medicine and Biology

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 127, the authors discuss Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurological disorder characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reduced dopamine levels in the striatum. Currently, there are few pharmacological treatments for PD and although Levodopa has frequently been used, it is not a viable treatment option for all patients. Thus, this book presents experimental evidence supporting the claim that endocannabinoid signaling may represent a promising therapeutic target for PD, inducing a reduction in neurodegeneration with minimal psychotropic effects. Subsequently, it presents findings that free-hydroxyproline observed in a physiological system must be resulted from a degradation of protein molecules. Variations in free-hydroxyproline concentrations in the plasma and white muscle of fishes, with genetic differences in growth rates and with different feedings, could indicate differences in protein degradation rates for tissue remodeling and growth. Since the synthesis of the connective tissue framework of muscle is a rate-limiting step in muscle growth, the concentrations of white muscle free-hydroxyproline could be reliable for growth studies, as its levels are correlated with fish specific growth rates (SGR) and feed efficiency. Next, the authors analyze the results of umbilical hernia repair using Ventralex® Hernia Patch, a bilayer prosthesis. Preoperative characteristics, surgical procedure details, postoperative complications and recurrence rate were studied. An overview of the most up-to-date findings on the association of NGF with development of schizophrenia is presented, based on literature data as well as the authors’ own findings. The contributions of other research groups are provided and discussed in the context of prominent existing hypothesis of psychiatric disorder development. Next, the authors exhibit a retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of 6-hour versus 4-hour HD sessions in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with three times per week, daytime, in-center HD. Using data from a cohort of forty-three, stable chronic ESRD patients, the authors compared twenty-one patients undergoing 6-hour HD sessions with twenty-two patients on conventional 4-hour HD sessions. The following chapter begins with an introduction to collagen and the function of Hyp in the collagen molecule, followed by a description of sources of various Hyp fractions in tissues and body fluids. The effects of different toxins on various Hyp fractions in the serum and tissues are also discussed. Then, soy isoflavones or soy derivatives (supplements containing S-equol) are recommended for relieving vasomotor symptoms. The evidences for standardized cohosh preparations are effective and are also be recommended. This book also discusses DNA damage repair, a very important biological process commonly associated with human health and diseases, because a detailed elucidation of DNA repair mechanism is essential for a better understanding of health and disease. Afterwards, the current information on collagen PTMs and their alteration under different pathological conditions are examined. It has been reported that collagen undergoes polyubiquitination in response to S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The polyubiquitination inhibits Collagen processing leading to decreased collagen secretion in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In closing, a critical review about the impact of changes in lifestyle and diet supplementation with natural phytochemicals on cancer statistics is given. This review highlights the new advances in understanding the anticancer activity of flavonoids based on its ability to damage DNA in cancer cells.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-204-5
ISBN: 978-1-53613-205-2

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Advances in Animal Science and Zoology. Volume 11

Editor: Owen P. Jenkins

Series: Advances in Animal Science and Zoology

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this collection, the authors discuss oropharyngeal trichomonosis, a disease that affects wild and domestic birds, summarizing the most significant aspects of the disease: the biology, diagnosis and treatment options. Recent scientific advances in the pathology, epidemiology and control of the disease are also discussed. Following this, current animal breeding strategies in organic farms are analyzed to determine the animal breeds that could potentially benefit from different organic dairy farming systems. In a subsequent review, a status assessment (based on a comprehensive literature review) of the conservation issues of the West African lion is conducted. The authors conclude that without an intensive effort to rectify the factors for the extinction of the West African lion (human population growth and urbanization, desertification, decline of food sources, cattle herding, hunting and farming) and increased public acknowledgement of this comparatively neglected lion subspecies, the West African lion has a bleak future. This book includes a review of the knowledge of extended family bonds between females in mammals and birds, focusing on how waterfowl are particularly predisposed to female-centered kin clans. A study is presented which investigates whether lineal kin, i.e. mothers and their adult daughters, form long-term bonds in a well-studied model organism within waterfowl, the greylag goose. The Atlantic Forest biome is exhibited as one of the most biodiverse and threatened biomes in the world. The authors conduct a quantitative analysis on the published data about parasitism by Amblyomma ticks on birds of the Atlantic Forest, testing whether ecological and morphological variables of the host are associated with parasitism by ticks. This compilation also includes a review of Cryptosporidium, describing the history, taxonomy, epidemiology cycle, clinical signs, diagnostic, treatment and prevention. Next, exposure of Drosophila suzukii, a fruit fly species native to Southeast Asia, to two fruits, blueberries and raspberries, is analyzed for possible effects on sexual behavior and fecundity. The parasitoid jewel wasp genus Nasonia is offered as an excellent model system to investigate genetic, behavioral and ecological aspects of chemical communication. Three main pheromone communication systems are discussed in light of their respective chemical basis, hierarchical interplay, species-specificity and potential contribution to prezygotic reproductive isolation. In closing, the clinical signs of Giardia infection are discussed, including delayed growth, dehydration, weight loss, and recurrent diarrhea. The occurrence of Giardia spp. in birds from a particular site is studied to demonstrate the extent of the disease, its specificity to its hosts, and its risk and transmission potential.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-214-4
ISBN: 978-1-53613-215-1

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Phagocytosis: Overview, History and Role in Human Health and Disease

Editor: Carlos Rosales, Ph.D. (Department of Immunology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, D. F., Mexico)

Series: Cell Biology Research Progress

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Phagocytosis is an elegant, but complex process that cells use for the ingestion and elimination of particles larger than 5 mm in diameter. Unicellular organisms use phagocytosis to eat, while complex pluricellular animals have special phagocytic cells, which can phagocytize microbial pathogens, foreign toxic substances, and apoptotic cells. The Russian scientist Elie Metchnikoff originally described phagocytosis in the late 19th century. The scientific community of the time strongly opposed phagocytosis as part of their defense mechanisms, since the view was that only humoral elements were responsible for immunity. The importance of this cellular process has become evident with time thanks to the efforts of many dedicated researchers. Today, phagocytosis is recognized as a fundamental process not only for immunity, but also for tissue homeostasis. Because phagocytosis is a very complex process, its molecular bases are not completely known. This book represents an effort to introduce our present understanding of phagocytosis through the contribution of several brilliant scientists that actually investigate phagocytosis on a daily basis. This book describes the history of phagocytosis and then the various steps of the phagocytic process from initial cell contact to phagosome formation, where the phagocytized particle is destroyed. Each chapter deals with one of these steps and emphasizes the molecules that participate at that step. The authors begin by describing the difficult origins of phagocytosis and how the cellular theory was finally recognized to be as important as the humoral theory of immunity. Next, the chapter "Receptor Signaling During Phagocytosis" talks about the signaling pathways of the major groups of phagocytic receptors, namely receptors for antibodies and complement. Then, the chapter “The Role of Phosphoinositides in the Formation and Maturation of Phagosomes” describes how these different membrane phospholipds regulate the changes in membrane composition during the process of phagocytosis. The following chapters deal with the mechanics of phagosome formation and membrane traffic for phagosome maturation. So, the chapter "Phagosome Formation and Sealing: A Physical Point of View" tells us about the cytoskeleton changes that bring about the closure of the new phagosome. The chapter “Vesicular Trafficking: Golgi to Plasma Membrane” describes the movement of internal membranes to the plasma membrane to allow the formation of the phagosome. The chapter “Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Super Phagocytes with a Rhythm” describes an important example of how phagocytosis contributes to homeostasis. In the eye, the retinal pigment epithelium cells specifically phagocytize the photosensitive outer segment of photoreceptor cells following a diurnal rhythm. This contributes to the maintenance of a healthy retina. Finally, the chapter “How Do Microbial Pathogens Escape from Phagocytosis?” describes various mechanisms that some microbial pathogens have evolved to disrupt the phagocytic process and be able to survive in the host to perpetuate their infection. Each chapter can be read independently, but together all of the chapters offer a general view of phagocytosis. The book provides in this way a complete modern vision of this important biological function.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-248-9
ISBN: 978-1-53613-249-6

Price: $195.00
Price: $195.00


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Advances in Marine Biology. Volume 3

Editors: Adam Kovács and Patrik Nagy

Series: Advances in Marine Biology

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
Advances in Marine Biology. Volume 3 begins by focusing on some novel compounds having antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and other bioactive properties identified and isolated from marine sponges, which could serve as leads for drug discovery. The authors also discuss the factors that contribute to new discoveries and the challenges associated with translating marine sponge-derived compounds into clinical trials. The advances that may further expand the promise of drug discovery from marine sponges are also examined. Following this, the authors present current information about Hox-genes in polychaetes and make some cautious assumptions about the ancestral functions of the Hox-cluster. The basic plane and evolution of bilateral animals (Bilateria) are closely associated with Hox-genes. These genes usually exist in the genome in the form of the aforementioned clusters, gene complexes with a conservative position of individual genes inside them. Marine biotoxins are examined, specifically their correlation with of harmful algal blooms (HABs) which can accumulate in seafood products. This can have severe consequences on both the fishery industry and consumer health, as most marine biotoxins are not destroyed by food technologies like freezing or cooking, and their presence cannot be perceived because they give no specific taste, flavor or smell to food. The subsequent article contains a study on adaptation to environmental salinity alterations in the White Sea mussel Mytilus edulis, with its research having been conducted for several years and involving both long-term acclimation and exposure to stress salinity. A series of experiments were conducted in order to deduce the mussels’ capacity to adapt to environmental salinity changes, especially in terms of cell and molecular mechanisms of salinity adaptation. This compilation also presents a preliminary work within a large scale research program on H. diversicolor in different estuaries with the PNETOX Program ‘National Program of Ecotoxicology’. In the framework of the French National Program of Ecotoxicology, environmental quality was assessed in the multi-polluted Seine Estuary and the comparatively clean Authie Estuary, France (2002-2004), by determining contaminant levels in water, sediments and the infaunal worm H. diversicolor. The experiments were carried out concurrently in spring 2007 using a common protocol.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-092-8
ISBN: 978-1-53613-093-5

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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mRNA: Molecular Biology, Processing and Function

Editors: Irma Fernandez and Lynn Jackson

Series: Cell Biology Research Progress

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this collection, the authors review the currently available data on interactions of ribosomal components with canonical mRNAs and with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRESes during translation and on conformational rearrangements in the ribosomes accompanying these interactions. This review considers data obtained by biochemical approaches, primarily by site-directed cross-linking with the application of mRNA and IRES analogues bearing reactive groups in definite locations, and models for translational complexes of higher eukaryotic ribosomes derived from cryo-electron microscopy. Afterwards, the authors discuss how the addition of the poly(A) tail of 30-100 adenosines to the 3´-end of mRNA has been shown to be important for the stability, nuclear export, export of mRNA to the cytoplasm and translation of a transcript. The molecular mechanism responsible for the definition of a poly(A) site includes several recognition, cleavage and polyadenylation factors that identify the poly(A) signal, usually AAUAAA hexamer and similar variants, located 10-35 nucleotides upstream of the cleavage site. The process known as SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) conjugation to a lysine residue in the target protein or sumoylation is a rapid, reversible post-transcriptional modification is also examined. Similar to ubiquitin, SUMO isoforms are conjugated to their targets by a isopeptide bond between their C-terminal glycine and the ɛ-NH2 group of the target lysine residue. Next, the authors discuss splicing of pre-mRNAs coding for proteins. Since the discovery of frequent spliceosomal gene mutations which occur in about 65% of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we know that splicing factor gene mutations are the most frequent mutations found in MDS patients. Predominantly, four splicing factor genes (SF3B1, SRSF2, U2AF1, ZRSR2) are mutated in MDS and related malignancies. In closing, the authors present their findings that splicing is not only necessary for obtaining correct open reading frames, but also leads to deposition of the exon junction complex core. Essentially, all pre-mRNAs are cleaved and polyadenylated with exception of histone mRNAs.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-168-0
ISBN: 978-1-53613-169-7

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Trends in Life Science Research

Editors: Rajeshwar P. Sinha (Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India) and Umesh P. Shrivastava (Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Thakur Ram Multiple Campus, Birgunj, Nepal)

Series: Biotechnology in Agriculture, Industry and Medicine

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
The modern age life science research is more inclined towards interdisciplinary studies. Recent developments in the technologies have led to a better understanding of living systems, and this has removed the demarcations between various disciplines of life sciences. A new trend in life science incorporates biological research involving a merger of diverse disciplines such as microbiology, biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, ecology and agriculture. This book is primarily written with the objective of providing standard information on recent topics in the fields of stress biology, molecular biology, ecology, agriculture, bioremediation, human diseases and over all, several biotechnological approaches towards the studies ranging from green photosynthesizing plants to human pathogens. The book encompasses topics on cyanobacteria, bacteria, fungi, higher plants, ecology and human diseases, distributed throughout eleven chapters for the benefit of graduate and postgraduate students as well as young researchers and scientists. The ever-increasing population has resulted in an increasing demand of food, medicine and other natural products. Researchers are continuously working to resolve and develop a better understanding of life and other biological processes; they need to conserve genes, plants and ecosystems, and the apprehension of land, water and environment have led to the strengthening of traditional disciplines as well as the emergence of diverse disciplines such as stress biology, molecular biology, biotechnology, agriculture and human health. This book imparts the latest developments and the state-of-the art knowledge in the specific fields of life sciences.
The subject matter is presented in a logical sequence so that it is easily understandable to the students and researchers. The recent information on the subject is integrated throughout the chapters. In addition, this book provides newer techniques and the use of modern tools in achieving the potential of microbiology, ecology, herbal medicine, biotechnology and stress biology; this is all used to understand the challenges found in life sciences. This book covers a wide range of topics, and the authors anticipate that the contents may appeal to a wider range of readers. Therefore, the authors present this book with great pleasure and express their most sincere gratitude to all the contributors and research scholars, namely Mr. Jainendra Pathak, Mr. Rajneesh, Ms. Vidya Singh, Mr. Deepak Kumar, Mr. Haseen Ahmed, Mr. Deepak K. Singh and Ms. Abha Pandey. They are also particularly thankful to Nova Science Publishers, Inc., for their continued patience and for the unfailing attention they have given to the publication of this book.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-241-0
ISBN: 978-1-53613-242-7

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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The Mechanics of Life: A Closer Look at the Inner Workings of Nature

Author: Timothy Ganesan, Ph.D. (Research Engineer at TNB Research, Selangor, Malaysia)

Series: Systems Biology - Theory, Techniques and Applications

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
This book is devoted to current ideas and developments in the biological sciences which stretch into fields such as engineering, medicine, quantum physics, computer modeling and genetics. In the past couple of years, biology and medicine have significantly evolved. The picture of the solitary biologist taking samples from the field and working in a lab with test tubes and chemical apparatus is a thing of the past. Today, bio-labs are filled with scientists across various disciplines like physics, mathematics and engineering. Most equipment are completely automated and robotic. They are often controlled by powerful computers acquiring and processing vast amounts of data for rigorous analysis. These advances have sped up the rate at which research is done in those fields. The topics presented in this book are simplified versions of these advances. Focusing on the “how it works” explanation, the notions presented here are made easy and simple to follow. Besides current research, the book elaborates on novel innovations in bio-related research – e.g., ecosystem simulators, robotic surgery, natural experimentation and state-of-the-art instrumentation. Social and economic aspects of modern biology and medicine are also explored throughout this book; touching on issues related to disease spread, medical efforts and best scientific practices. The final part of this book walks through the mechanisms involved in the evolution of life on our planet. Along these lines, the evolution of Homo sapiens is briefly visited. In essence, this book involves taking a closer look at the mechanics of life.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-937-3
ISBN: 978-1-53612-938-0

Price: $195.00
Price: $195.00


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Nannochloropsis: Biology, Biotechnological Potential and Challenges

Editors: Marcel Jan and Przemek Kazik

Series: Marine Biology

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
Nannochloropsis: Biology, Biotechnological Potential and Challenges opens with a review suggesting that transgenic Nannochloropsis microalgae have a broad spectrum of applications in marine and plant biotechnology and that have the propensity to be a source of raw material for a wide range of industries. The authors express this while going on to present an overview of the future uses of this genus in the context of genetic improvement for new biotechnological applications. The provision of nitrogen from different sources is presented as a strategy used to modify the biomass composition. Nitrate is the ideal nitrogen source and gives the highest biomass concentration and specific growth rate when compared with urea and ammonium. Additionally, modern advancements in the application of Nannochloropsis biomass for commodity chemicals, feeds, high value products, biofuels, cosmetics, fertilizers, and materials production are presented, in conjunction with challenges and future perspectives in the utilization of Nannochloropsis biomass for biorefinery development in microalgae-based industries. The characteristic of Nannochloropsis oculata are described using an integrated biorefinery approach based on palm oil milling as a model system. Subjects addressed include the bioengineering aspects for the conversion of light into biomass, co-location strategy to take advantages of the industrial wastes of energy, water and nutrients, productivities of the different reactor systems and configuration, use of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a substitute source of nutrients, biomaterials co-utilization, bioenergy co-generation, downstream processing aspects for extraction, purification and conversion into value-added products for pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Continuing, common methods for characterization of âG from diatom and non-diatoms microalgae are described to conclude that Nannochloropsis (particularly NpUNAM) has significant potential for the industrialized production of âG. Lastly, the extraction of cytoplasmic soluble proteins is depicted as one of the challenges for effective development of microalgae biotechnological potential, with correctly selected Pulsed Electric Fields resulting in the release of cytoplasmic soluble proteins.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-843-7
ISBN: 978-1-53612-844-4

Price: $195.00
Price: $195.00


Cover

Using Petri Nets to Model the Chemical Stages of the Radiobiological Mechanism

Editors: Jiøí Barilla, Miloš V. Lokajíèek, Hana Pisaková, and Pavel Simr (J. E. Purkinje University in Usti Nad Labem, Faculty of Science, Èeské Mládeže 8, Ústí nad Labem and Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)

Series: Medicine and Biology Research Developments

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
This book presents new developments in the study of the chemical stage of a radiobiological mechanism. The biological effect of ionizing particles in diploid cells depends on their linear energy transfer (LET) value. While for low-LET particles a pair of DSBs in the same sections of both the equal DNA molecules is to be formed by different particles in a relatively short irradiation interval, the increase of these DSB pairs at higher LET values is given by singular particles. This means that the radiobiological mechanism in physical and biological stages may be understood at least in principle, while the chemical stage represents a still rather open problem. It concerns basic process running in this stage as well as the influence of radiomodifying agents being present in a corresponding water medium during irradiation (mainly for low-LET radiation), which may be important in the regions of radiotherapy as well as radioprotection. It has been commonly assumed that this stage has been mediated by radical clusters formed by a densely ionizing end of secondary electrons. It is evident that only greater radical clusters (being able to form at least two SSBs in a given DNA molecule) may be efficient biologically. These clusters may originate, however, at different distances from DNA molecules present in a cell; they may meet a certain time after (due to heat motion and cluster diffusion). Consequently, the resulting biological effect may be influenced also by chemical processes running in diffusing clusters. A new model of corresponding cluster evolution (based on the use of a continuous Petri net and describing the concurrent influence of cluster diffusion and corresponding chemical reactions) will be presented and the possibility of its use in the analysis of a biological stage will be shown. On the basis of available data, the initial cluster characteristics (the emergence of water radicals) as well as the emergence of other radicals (if corresponding agents are present) may be established. The corresponding influence on the processes running in a biological stage may be estimated as well.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-896-3
ISBN: 978-1-53612-897-0

Price: $95.00
Price: $95.00