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Soil Contamination: Sources, Assessment and Remediation

Editor: Jesper E. Lund

Series: Agriculture Issues and Policies

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In this compilation, the authors present the results of the systematic study of the spatial distribution of trace metals in surface soil over the Bitola Region, Republic of Macedonia, known for its coal mine and thermoelectrical power plant activities. 149 soil samples were collected including top-soil and bottom-soil samples. Following this, the area in the vicinity of lead–zinc mine “Toranica” near the Kriva Palanka town in Eastern Macedonia was examined for the lithogenic and anthropogenic distribution of 17 elements, and alluvial soil samples and authomorphic soil samples were collected from the Kriva Reka River Basin. The authors aim to contribute to our understanding of the behaviour of nanoparticles in the soil, their uptake and distribution within plants, impact of soil microbial communities, and their interactions with other pollutants. Later, the authors summarize a case study on the presence of natural U-isotopes in two soil profiles developed over sandstones from the Paraná sedimentary basin in São Paulo State, Brazil, in order to evaluate the timescale of the weathering processes taking place there. The book suggests synergistic biological mechanisms as a less expensive, environment-friendly method for remediation of pesticide polluted soils. The concluding chapter discusses biochar, a form of char and charcoal made from the partial combustion of organic materials. Its properties include high water-holding capacity, large surface area, cation exchange capacity, and impact, especially on microbial communities.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-266-3
ISBN: 978-1-53613-267-0

Price: $95.00
Price: $95.00


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Agricultural Research Updates. Volume 22

Editors: Prathamesh Gorawala and Srushti Mandhatri

Series: Agricultural Research Updates

Publication Date: 2018

Book Description:
In Agricultural Research Updates. Volume 22, the authors begin by presenting research on the ecological features and adaptation of white-rot fungi in relation to the possible applications of these fungi in bioremediation strategies. The selection of an appropriate species should consider the production of ligninases and their activity as well as the ecological factors that could stimulate and increase the process. Following this, Streptomyces sр strains were tested for apple scab control in vitro and field conditions. Two applications of Streptomyces strain C1-4 within 35 days completely stopped the scab disease in seedling leaves. The authors also address the necessity for farmers to adapt to these challenges such as restricted land boundaries, adversity of climate changes and environmental degradation to prevent low crop output and maintain livelihoods of people. This is especially true in developing countries. As land becomes less productive, ground-breaking organic crop production systems that cover different cultivating pattern must be implemented. The subsequent chapter provides important information about different possibilities for citric acid production, including the use of alternative agro-industrial substrates. Fermentation techniques, such as submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation, and conditions that affect the acid synthesis are reported with the presentation of concrete examples of developed research. Wild ginger, or Siphonochilus aethiopicus, is discussed in the context of its usage as an anti-inflammatory, anti-plasmodial, anti-thrush and an indication for allergies, asthma, candidiasis, headache, influenza, menstrual cramps, sinusitis and sore throat among other conditions. Next, the book focuses on the unique characteristics of lavender hydrosols obtained from Polish cultavations of Lavandula angustifolia and describes a new lavender derivative fluidolate® acquired in an innovative technology relying on raw material drying. The scientific knowledge acquired on Tara is reviewed in order to sustainably manage the Tara plantations and increase their productivity and stability. The botanical description of this tree species, as well as its ecology, is addressed. Later, a study is presented focusing on factors of different rainfall interannual variability using monthly precipitation in 22 stations for the period 1950-2012. El Niño, El Niño Modoki, the positive phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and the shift to the south of the South Atlantic High are shown to lead to an increase in spring precipitation in central Buenos Aires. In another study, an efficient protocol for somatic embryogenesis using leaf explants was developed with three elite cacao cultivars (CRIN TC1, CRIN TC2 and CRIN TC5). The zygotic embryos of these cultivars were aseptically excised and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium without growth regulators. The compilation ends with an investigation of salt tolerance and the changes of antioxidative ability in mycorrhizal strawberry plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora margarita were inoculated in strawberry (Fragaria×ananssa. Duch) plants. Plants were treated with no salt, 200mM and 500mM NaCl solution.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53613-011-9
ISBN: 978-1-53613-012-6

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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The System of Rice Intensification and Conventional Rice Farming: Responding to Crop Growth, Yield and Water Productivity

Author: Tejendra Chapagain, PhD (Research Associate, University of Guelph, ON, Canada)

Series: Biotechnology in Agriculture, Industry and Medicine

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) involves the adoption of certain changes in management practices for rice cultivation that create a better growing environment for rice crops. The use of intermittent irrigation with alternate wet and dry intervals (AWD) and single transplanting of the younger seedlings in wider spacing areas are regarded as the key factors in SRI for better crop growth and productivity.
Field experiments were conducted in Chiba, Japan during the two consecutive rice growing seasons (May-September) of 2008-09 to observe the effects of SRI components on rice crop performance, field environment, water savings, and water-wise rice production. The effects of the irrigation method, age of seedlings and spacing were evaluated in the 2008 rice season with eight treatment combinations in a split-split plot design (S-SPD). AWDI at 10 day intervals and continuous flooding throughout the cropping season were the two main plot factors while the effects of seedling age (14 and 21 days) and plant spacing (30x30 cm2 and 30x18 cm2) were evaluated as sub and sub-sub plot factors, respectively. The experimental results revealed that the SRI management with the proposed AWDI can save a significant amount of irrigation water (29%) without reduced grain yield (7.41t/h compared with 7.37t/ha from normal planting with ordinary water management).
Water productivity was also observed to be significantly higher in all combinations of practices in AWDI plots: 1.74 g/liter with SRI management and AWDI as compared to 1.23 g/liter in normal planting with ordinary water management. In addition, the research outcomes showed a role of AWDI in minimizing pest and disease incidence, shortening the rice crop cycle and also improving the plant stand until harvest. Synergistic effects of younger seedlings and wider spacing were seen in tillering ability, panicle length and a number of filled grains that ultimately led to higher productivity with better grain quality.
Field experiments with the complete sets of SRI practices were carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) during the 2009 rice growing season in the same field. SRI (with 8 day old seedlings) and conventional (with 22 day old seedlings) practices were the first factor (cultivation method), while organic and inorganic managements were evaluated as the second factor (management method) in the field experiments. The highest yield was observed through the conventional method with inorganic management (6.84t/h) that was on par with the organic SRI (6.59t/h) followed by organic conventional (6.48t/h). It was recorded as 5.92t/h in inorganic SRI management. Overall, the effects of SRI components were positive and significant on a per plant basis; however, they did not differ significantly in terms of grain yield per unit area.
The development of healthy and vigorous roots, increased stem diameter, greater productive leaf area, longer panicles, greater number of filled grains, development of plants tolerant to insect-pest and disease, and reduced plant lodging percentage were some notable achievements with SRI management. Water savings and water-wise rice production are other important issues that are likely to draw the attention of rice researchers and farm communities to adopt SRI under scarce water conditions. However, comparatively better grain yields with conventional management methods underscore a need for further investigations in defining an appropriate combination of practices for SRI management, considering local soil properties, prevailing climate and critical watering stages in rice crop management.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-619-8
ISBN: 978-1-53612-620-4

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Soil Stabilization: Types, Methods and Applications

Editor: Christian Reiniger

Series: Agriculture Issues and Policies

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
In the first chapter, Tania Pardo, Teresa Fresno, Vanessa Álvarez-López, and María Touceda-González review central aspects of phytostabilisation techniques for recovering trace elements contaminated soils. The possible future of phytotechnology is evaluated by reflecting on legislation, research evolution, and field implementation. In the second chapter, Essien Udo, Ph.D presents a study using laboratory investigations to discover problems linked to Coastal residual soils at plain and modified conditions, using the knowledge that residual soil parameters have a substantial effect on the overall performance or non-performance of sub-base and base course formations. Next, in the third chapter, Giovanni Santarato, Anna Albertini, Marco d’Attoli, Fabio Navi, Marco Occhi, Federico Fischanger, Gianfranco Morelli, Martino Leoni, Tiziana Apuani, Francesco Loddo, and Gaetano Ranieri present research on techniques of soil consolidation and stabilization by way of expanding resin injections. Supplementing this, V. Ortega-López, M. Skaf, and A. Santamaría discuss the way Ladle Furnace basic Slags might be used to stabilize natural clayey soils in the fourth chapter. In the fifth chapter, Lucile Saussaye, Lydia Leleyter, Didier Hennequin, Mohamed Boutouil, and Fabienne Baraud assess the effect of nitrate ions on the mechanical performances of soils treated with hydraulic binders, determining that treatment with hydraulic binders improves both the physical and mechanical characteristics of soils, thus permitting them to be used in a variety of geotechnical applications. Afterwards, Shuaishuai Wu, Zhengguo Gao, Shiyang Li, Wenbo Cui, and Xin Huang propose a confined stabilized soil pile as a possible new foundation treatment method in the sixth chapter. In the seventh chapter, Hao Yu, Xin Huang, Jianguo Ning, and Zhanguo Li present a study where three types of composite stabilizers with different AFt formation rates were used to stabilize two kinds of soils. In the eighth and final chapter, Jonathan Oti, PhD expresses findings that it is possible to stabilise clay soil with lime based systems incorporating WS or WTRG for use as improved filling material in road building and other applications.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-507-8
ISBN: 978-1-53612-528-3

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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Agricultural Research Updates. Volume 21

Editor: Prathamesh Gorawala and Srushti Mandhatri

Series: Agricultural Research Updates

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
In Chapter One, Gerhard Gramss and Klaus-Dieter Voigt study the theory that production of high-productivity grain crops and their locally acclimatised land strains must be stretched to low-value croplands that are radical in both mineral composition and contamination. In Chapter Two, Wander Luis Barbosa Borges, PhD, Isabela Malaquias Dalto de Souza, Marlene Cristina Alves, PhD, and Marco Eustáquio de Sá, PhD present a study involving the surveying of physical and chemical traits of soil in sustainable systems. Additionally, Ivica Đalović, Srđan Šeremešić, Miroslav Zorić, and Goran Bekavac present a study on maize yield stability in relative to the environment in Chapter Three. In Chapter Four, Masmoudi Charfi Chiraz, Ayadi Mohamed, Ben Abdallah Sirine, Oueslati Amira, and Belhadj Ismail Emna evaluate the oil composition of local versus foreign cultivars grown in the same environment. In Chapter Five, Shanthi Joseph, Zaynab Derakhshani, Daniel John Murphy, and Mrinal Bhave provide an overview of the disparities in glycine betaine accumulation in plants and the way this contributes to abiotic stress tolerance. Lastly, Natalia Girardi, María Alejandra Passone, Daiana García, Andrea Nesci, and Miriam Etcheverry review the microencapsulation technology of selected oils tested in vitro and in situ in their laboratory.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-697-6
ISBN: 978-1-53612-698-3

Price: $250.00
Price: $250.00


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Bacillus thuringiensis: Biological Characteristics, Toxicological Effects and Environmental Implications

Editor: Robert Bélanger

Series: Pesticides, Bacteria and Microorganisms

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
In Chapter One, André L. de A. Melo, PhD discusses the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and its uses as a bio-insecticide, also touching on ways to combat insect resistance. In Chapter Two, Karim Ennouri proposes the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis as an important biopesticide because of the entomopathogenic effect of delta-endtoxins as well as its efficiency against insects resistant to chemical insecticides. In conclusion, Rafael C. Lajmanovich, Candela S. Martinuzzi, Carlina Colussi, Paola M. Peltzer, Agustín Bassó, Andrés M. Attademo, and Lucila M. Curi present a study exploring the impact of a GM Bt-soybean-based diet, as opposed to a lettuce diet, on tadpoles.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-724-9
ISBN: 978-1-53612-725-6

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00


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Medicinal Plants: Production, Cultivation and Uses

Editors: Aubert Matthias and Nicolas Laisné

Series: Herbs and Herbalism

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
Danilo Hottis Lyra, PhD and Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral, PhD explore modern traditional and genomic breeding methods as they apply to medicinal and aromatic plants. They go on to discuss participatory crop breeding, the significance of genomic tools, and traditional methods of selection throughout Chapter One. In Chapter Two, Jelena Vladica, Senka Vidovica, Milica Acimovicb, Aleksandra Gavarica, and Stela Jokicc discuss the properties and uses of medicinal herbs, especially Satureja montana L, noting the way its chemical composition has large inconsistencies that make it difficult to produce products from it. Next, Senka Vidovic, Katarina Savikin, Milica Acimovic, Jelena Vladic, Nada Cujic, Aleksandra Gavaric, and Teodora Jankovic present insight on Aronia (also known as chokeberry) in Chapter Three, mainly deliberating on its cultivation, phytochemical properties, health effects and applications, and challenges of use. Similary, Aleksandra Gavarica, Stela Jokicb, Maja Molnarb, Senka Vidovica, Jelena Vladica, and Milica Acimovicc present a review on Helichrysum in Chapter Four. Chapter Five by Maria Andreza Freitas Martins, Melise Pessôa Araújo, and Jesus Rodrigues Lemos offers a study intending to identify the diversity of native and exotic vegetables in Baixa da Carnaúba backyards in Parnaíba, PI. In Chapter Six, Mladenka Pestorić, PhD, Bojana Filipčev, PhD, Aleksandra Mišan, PhD, and Olivera Šimurina, PhD discuss the propensity for medicinal plants to be used in cereal based product production to combat metabolic disorders. Following this, Chapter Seven by Jorge Izaquiel Alves de Siqueira, Edna Maria Ferreira Chaves, and Jesus Rodrigues Lemos introduce a study aiming to detect medicinal plants in agroforestry yards in Franco, Cocal, Piauí. Usman Ali Ashfaq and Quratul ain Tariq provide an overview of the gram positive aerobic bacterium Staphylococcus in Chapter Eight. Lastly, Chapter Nine by Anuradha Singh and Anamika Singh elaborates on the biochemical aspects of Tulsi, a medicinal plant worshipped in India as holy.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-728-7
ISBN: 978-1-53612-729-4

Price: $230.00
Price: $230.00


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Pleurotus Mushrooms: Ecology, Cultivation and Uses

Editors: Pedr Mervyn and Ilar Gwynn

Series: Herbs and Herbalism

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
In the first chapter, N. Pozdnyakova, S. Balandina, O. Turkovskaya provide an overview of the current knowledge on degradation of natural compounds and xenobiotics via Pleurotus fungi, especially focusing on the involvement of metabolic pathways and the cataclysmic properties of the enzymes. In the second chapter, Maura Téllez-Téllez and Gerardo Díaz-Godínez discuss the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and its nutritious properties and therapeutic applications. In the third chapter, Gerhard Gramss and Klaus-Dieter Voigt present data that showcases the role fungi play in food production, as well as their impact on growth technology and enzyme production. Lastly, Noé Aguilar-Rivera, Régulo Carlos Llarena-Hernández, Rosalía Núñez-Pastrana, Christian Michel-Cuello, Jie Chen, and Luis Enrique Aquino-Solis present a study evaluating the potential for sugar cane harvest in Veracruz, Mexico.

Binding: Hardcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-738-6
ISBN: 978-1-53612-739-3

Price: $160.00
Price: $160.00


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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Effects, Analyses and Insights

Editors: Raul Bryan and Shirley Brooks

Series: Microbiology Research Advances

Publication Date: 2017

Book Description:
In this book, the authors review their own studies on the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (rhizospheric microorganisms) on plant host physiology and development. The increasing interest for the reduction of the input of chemical fertilizers and the use of combined microorganisms as biofertilizers, particularly applied in organic agriculture, is taken into account. The authors also note that it is pertinent to complement the laboratory and greenhouse work with field conditions, possibly by working with agricultural farmers to achieve peak results. Following this, the putative role of sncRNAs on mycorrhiza-induced systemic stress tolerance is discussed, along with future prospects of sncRNA research in AM symbiosis and its potential practical applications. A final chapter focuses on the literature aiming for improvement of the biomass of date palm trees, and subjacent cultures, by setting up an efficient biological protocol integrating the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and organic soil conditioners resulting from the composting of plants and agro-industrial waste.

Binding: Softcover
Binding: e-Book

ISBN: 978-1-53612-981-6
ISBN: 978-1-53612-982-3

Price: $82.00
Price: $82.00